Monthly Archives: September 2014

قضيّة الإلهام: حقيقة أم طيف من الخيال؟

 

قضيّة الإلهام: حقيقة أم طيف من الخيال؟

عبد الحفيظ أدينييي أحمد أديدميج (أبو القيم)

مسؤول كليّة الإنسانيّات الإداريّ، جامعة الحكمة، إلورن، نيجيريا

abdulhafeezmeji@yahoo.com & abdulhafeezadedimeji@gmail.com

تقديم

          الحمد لله الذي خلق النفس وسوّاها، فألهمها فجورها وتقواها، والصلاة والتسليم على من هُدِيَ به أعين عمي، وآذان صمّ، وقلوب غلف، محمّد بن عبد الله، وعلى آله أصحاب الأدب، وأصحابه أرباب الأرب. أما بعد:

فهذه سطور قليلة حاولت فيها معالجة قضيّة من أكثر القضايا النقديّة تعقيدًا، غصت من أجلها بطون الكتب القديمة والحديثة قدر ما سمح لي الوقت المتاح لكتابتها. ولقد سعيت جهدي أن يكون البحث مختصراومع ذلكملمّا بأطراف القضيّة. كما تُنُووِلتْ عبر التاريخ ودُرست لدى الأمم.

          هذا، والسبب الدافع إلى الخوض في قضيّة الإلهام هو أنني لاحظت أنّه-على الرغم من شهرة القضيّة وحساسيّة طبيعتها وعنايتي بالاطلاع على الكتب النقدية قديمها وحديثها ألم أجد أحدًا- حسب علمي-أفرد لها التأليف، وخصّص لها البحث، فكل هذه المراجع والمصادر لم تعط الموضوع ما يستحقّه من العمق وسبر الأغوار، ولم يُلمّ أصحابها بأطراف القضيّة كما ينبغي، بل لا يتجاوز صنيعهم إلاّ أن يلمسوها لمسًا خفيفًا، أو يذكروها ذكرًا عابرًا لا يشفى منه العليل، ولا يرتوي منه الغليل. ولسدّ هذه الثغرة انبعثت والحقّ بناءً على ما سلف ذكرهأنّ من شأن الدراسات المبتكرة أن يعتورها شيء من عدم الشمولية وفقدان الإحاطة، فإن وُفِّقْت في شيء منه فالحمد والثناء لله الملهم الإنسان رشده وحده، ولولا حرصي على الإسهام في خدمة الأدب والنقد ما استطعت، وتعميق البحث وتعميم الفائدة ما وسعني، لولا ذلك كلّه ما سبحت في هذا البحر، وما ولجت في هذا الغور. أمّا عن زَلِّ القلم ومَن مِن البشر لا يزلّ قلمه؟!- فحسنٌ قصدي وجدٌّ سَعْيِي، والمجتهدإن أخلص النّيةمأجور على كلّ حالٍ.

 

وقد قسّمت البحث إلى مدخل، وثلاثة فصول، وخاتمة

1-     مدخل: في ماهيّة الإلهام.

2 –    فصل: دهشة القدماء وحيرتهم في تحقيق الإلهام.

3 –    فصل: حقائق توصّل إليها الإسلاميون في مسألة الإلهام.

4 –    فصل: دور علم النفس الحديث في دعم موقف المسلمين.

5 –    خاتمة: وتشتمل على النتائج الّتي توصّل إليها البحث والتّوْصية تجاه القضيّة.

          والله أسأل أن يغفر لي ما تقدّم من ذنبي وما تأخّر، وأن يتمّ عليّ نعمته، ويَهديني صراطا مستقيما، فله الحمد في الأولى والآخرة.

 

(مدخل: في ماهية الإلهام)

          من العسير جدّاإن لم يكن من المستحيلتحديد مصطلح الإلهام بتعريف جامع مانع يجلّيه حقيقة التّجلية. ذلك لأنّ الإنسان مذ بدأ يتفنّن، أو -بتعبير أصحّ مذ بدأ أفراد في مجتمعه يتفنّنون، وظاهرة الإبداع الفني تثير انتباهه وتدفعه إلى محاولة تمييزها، والكشف عن طبيعتها وبواعثها“.1

          ومن ثمّ لم يجد بدّا سوى أن يعزو قدرة الإبداع التي هالته إلى الإلهام، فهو في الحقيقة كما سيتبيّن لنا من خلال الدراسةأحد بواعثها بلا خلاف. وهل هو الباعث فحسب؟ فما معناه؟ فما مستمدّه؟ فما حدوده؟ هل الشاعر في عمليّة الشعر يُوحَى إليه فينفث في روعه ما يقوله أم يكدّ في سبيل ذلك قريحته كدّا؟ فالإجابة عن هذه التساؤلات قد انقلبت إلى ظاهرة حيّرت الألباب، وزلزلت الأقلام، وهذا ما سنعرضه مفصّلا فيما بعد في هذه الأوراق المعدودات. فغاية ما نفعله هنا أن أقرّب مفهومه إلى الدارسين مستنيرا بما حوته جهود الباحثين في هذه القضيّة.

          أمّا الإلهام من حيث اللّغة فيدلّ على الالتقام، وهو ابتلاع الشيء، ثمّ توسّع في معناه فاستعمل فيما يلقى في الرّوع فيلتهمه الملهَم.2 ومنه قوله تعالى: (ونفس وما سوّاها؛. فألهمها فجورها وتقواها).3 ومن هنا نعلم أن الشيء المُوقَع في القلب (أي: الملهم به) قد يكون خيرا، وقد يكون شرًّا.

          هذا، وقد غلب استعماله في الخير دون الشّرّ حتّى عرّفه اللّغويّون المحدثون بأنّه إيقاع شيء في القلب يطمئنّ له الصّدر، يخصّ الله به بعض أصفيائه“. وقيل هو: “ما يلقى في القلب من معان وأفكار“.4

          ولعلّ المعنى الأخير أقرب إلى مفهومه في البحث النقديّ الذي يرى بعض المتخصّصين فيه أنّه حبّ الفكرة والهيام بها، والمثابرة الجادّة طلبا لما هو جدير أن يقال، وحبّ العاطفة التي هي عاطفتنا“.5

          هذا، وقد جزم آخرون أنّه أساس لا بدّ أن يوجد لدى الأديب أوّلا، وإلاّ ضاعت محاولاته سدى، وذهب ما يقوله عبثا، ولم يكن لقوله هذا الصدى الذي يرجعه الزمان، وتردّده جنبات الأرض في كلّ مكان“.6

          وأيّا ما كان الأمر، فإنّ الإلهام عدة الأديب ومنبع عمله الأساسيّ شاعرا كان أو ناثرًا، إلا أنّهم عُنوا بدراسته عند الشاعر في المقام الأوّل. فماذا خلفت لنا دراسة الأوائل في هذه الظاهرة الشائكة؟

 

فصل: دهشة القدماء وحيرتهم في تحقيق مصدر الإلهام

          ليس العرب متفرّدين في الانشغال بحقيقة الإلهام والبحث عن منبعه، وإنّما قد سبقهم اليونان فيما سجّله التاريخإلى ذلك. ولعلّ أوّل من أفاض الكلام في هذه القضية أفلاطون (429-347ق.م) في محاوراته التي عنوانها “إيون Ion. فنجده في ذلك يبالغ في حقّ الشعراء مبالغة شديدة حتّى إنّه ليجعلهم في مرتبة الأنبياء الأصفياء، بل يثبت لهم شيئًا من القداسة حيث أثبت أنّ الشاعر:

كائن أثيري مقدّس ذو جناحين، لا يمكن أن يبتكر قبل أن يلهم، ويفقد في هذا الإلهام إحساسه وعقله. وإذا لم يصل إلى هذه الحالة فإنّه يظل غير قادر على نظم الشعر أو استجلاء الغيب. وما دام الشعراء والمنشدون لا ينظمون أو ينشدون القصائد الكثيرة الجميلة عن فنّ، ولكن عن موهبة إلـهية، لذلك لا يستطيع أحد منهم أن يتقن إلا ما تلهمه إيّاه ربّة الشعرلذلك يفقدهم الإلـه شعورهم ليتخذهم وسطاء كالأنبياء والعرّافين الملهمين، حتّى ندركنحن السامعينأنّ هؤلاء لا يستطيعون أن ينطقوا بهذا الشعر الرائع إلا غير شاعرين بأنفسهم، وإنّ الإلـه هو الذي يحدّثنا بألسنتهم.7

          ويتبيّن لنا من الفقرة السالفة أنّ أفلاطون سبق إلى حقيقة نقديّة لم يخالف فيها إلى يومنا هذا. ألا وهي تقريره أنّ الشاعر “لا يمكن أن يبتكر قبل أن يلهم”. أمّا تصريحاته فيما وراء ذلك فموضع نقاش عند كثير من المحقّقين، فهو يرى أنّ الشاعر “مقدّس ذو جناحين”، وأنّه خلال قرضه للشعر يفقد “إحساسه وعقله”، فهو يجعل نظم الشعر كـ”استجلاء الغيب”. ثمّ يضطرب بعد ذلك اضطرابًا شديدًا حيث جعل مصدر الشاعرية “موهبة إلهية” ليعدل بعد ذلك إلى أنّ الشاعر لا “يتقن إلا ما تلهمه إيّاه ربّة الشعر”، وينتهي بزعمه أنّ “الإلـه هو الذي يحدّثنا بألسنتهم”.

          ونلاحظ أن الشاعر على اعتقاد أفلاطون يرتقي إلى درجة الإله على أعلى تقدير، وإلى درجة النّبيّ على أقلّ تقدير. والإلهام على حدّ مفهوم موقفه بناءً على النّصّ السالف الذكروحي أو قبسٌ من عالم الغيب. وذلك إن تغاضينا عن الاضطرابات الملحوظة في موقفه، على ما سبقت الإشارة إليه.

          وإعجاب اليونان بفلسفة أفلاطونومن قبله أستاذه سقراط (ت 399ق.م)هو الذي حملهم إلى تبنّي فكرة ربّة الشعر، وإلى الولوع بتفصيل هذه الفكرة، بل يثبتون عدة أسماء لا ربّة شعر واحدة، كما قرّره أفلاطون. فمصدر الشعرعلى ما يرون ويروونربّات شعر عديدة. نقل عنهم أنّهم كانوا “يعتقدون أنّ ربات الشعر هؤلاء هنّ ملهمات الشعراء ومعلماتهم القصيد وما ينبغي له. وربما ذكرت إحداهنّ أنّها القائمة بالعملين جميعا، ولكنّ شيئا محقّقا لم يرو عن عددهنّ وأسمائهن. وقد ذكر الشاعر “هزيود” أنّهنّ تسع، وأنّهنّ بنات الإلـه “زيوس” وكذلك نصّ على أسمائهنّ. وهي: كليو، يوتيرب، ثاليا، ملبومين، بريسيكور، إراتو، بوليهيمنا، أورانيا، وكلبيو”.8

هذا، وعلى غرار اليونان مشى الرّومان في نظرية الإلهام، وذلك أنّ هؤلاء من ثقافة أولئك استقوا وارتووا.

فوجدناهم يسايرونهم في النظر إلى الإلهام في الشعر. ويردّون هذا الإلهام إلى الآلهة. ويكبّرون من شأن الشاعر، ويحسمون عائدته على الجماعة، ومن ذلك ما قرّره هوراس من أنّ الشعراء قد اكتسبوا بين الناس لقب الألوهية وشرفها.9

أمّا العرب القدماء فقد ردّوا الإلهام إلى الشياطين طورا وإلى الجنّ طورا آخر. وقد وجدناهم يثبتون أنّ لكلّ شاعر شيطانا يلهمه. ونحن نرى في تُراث العرب الشعري ما يثبت هذا الاعتقاد. وقد عقد الجاحظ في كتاب الحيوان بابًا عَنْوَنَهُ بـ(شياطين الشعراء)، وقال في مطلعه: “فإنهم يزعمون أنّ مع كلّ فحل من الشعراء شيطانًا يقول ذلك الفحلُ على لسانه الشعر”10. ثمّ عقب ذلك بذكر عدّة أسماء من الشياطين يلهمون فحول الشعراء شعرهم.11 ومن ذلك قول الراجز:

إنّـي وإن كنت صغير السّنّ ** وكان فـي  العـين نبوٌّ عنّي

فإنّ  شيطانـي كبير  الجـنّ** يذهب بيفي الشعركلّ فنّ

حـتّى يزيـل عـنّي التّظنّي

بل ذهب بهم خيالهم بعيدًا حتى جعلوا “الشياطين قبائل، كقبائل العرب، ومن ذلك أن شيطان حسّان بن ثابت كان من بني الشيصبان، كما يقول حسّان:

إذا مـا  تـرعرع فينا الغلام**  فمـا إن  يقال  له من هوه

إذا لـم يسد قـبل شقّ الإزار**  فذلك  فينا الـذي لا هوه

ولي صاحب من بني الشيصبان**  فطورا  أقول وطورا هوه12

ولسنا نشكّ أنّ هذه الأبياتإن صحّت نسبته إلى حسّان رضي الله عنهفهي ممّا قاله قبل إسلامه، إذ قد أثبت النقاد أنّ حسّانا قد كثر في شعره الوضعُ، وحمِّل ما لم يحمّل أحدٌ من الشعراء13 وسواء كان الأمر هذا أو ذاك، فهي شهادة قويّة على اعتقاد العرب وفهمهم للإلهام.

وحسّانٌ هنا يقرّر ثلاثة أمور: أوّلها أنّ له صاحبًا غير إنسيّ، وثانيها أنّ هذا الصاحب ينتسب إلى الشيصبان، (وبنو الشيصبان إما أن يكونوا أبناء جنيّ يعرف بهذا الاسم أو يكون اسم قبيلة من قبائل الجنّ)، وآخرها أنّ حسّانا وشيطانه يتناوبان القول، فتارة يقول حسّانٌ وتارّة يقول شيطانه. ولعلّ من الطريف أن نعرف أنّ أحدهم قد افتخر بأنّ شيطانه ذكر وشيطان الآخرين أنثى، والذكر أقوى، وليس كالأنثى:

إنّي وكلّ شاعر من البشر  شيطانه أنثى، وشيطاني ذكر14

ولم يكتف العرب بذكر هؤلاء الجنّ أو الشياطين الذين يلهمون الشعراء. ولكنّهم سموهم بأعلامهم، فقد كان للأعشى “مسحل”، ولفرد بن قطن “جهنام”، ولبشار “سنقناق”، إلى غير ذلك من الأسماء.15

وإذا عرفت هذه الحقيقة بطل العجب من جعلهم النّبيّصلى الله عليه وسلّممعلَّما من قبل قوة لم يحدّدوها، وخالوه مجنونا في أوّل عهده بالرسالة. وتلك الحكاية هي التي وردت في قوله تبارك وتعالى: (أنّى لهم الذكرىوقد جاءهم رسول مبين؛. ثمّ تولّوا عنه وقالوا معلّم مجنون).16 بل جعلوا القرآن الكريملروعته وبلاغته وعدم قدرتهم على أن يأتوا بمثلهشعرا، ويصرّحون على ما حكي عنهم القرآن الكريم أنّ النبيّعليه الصّلاة والسّلامشاعر مجنون (والمجنونفيما يعتقدونمن يمسّه الجنّ أو يتعامل مع الجنّ، وليس من زال عقله). وذلك هو الذي حكاه الله سبحانه في الذكر الحكيم قائلا: (ويقولون أئنّا لتاركوا آلهتنا لشاعر مجنون).17 ووصف الشاعر بالمجنون هنا يدلّ دلالة واضحةً أنّ مرادهم بالكلمة أي المجنونمن مسّه الجنّ، حتّى استطاع أن يقول ما يُستغْرب ويستطرَفُ من القول الرّائع، لا مَنْ زال عقله؛ وذلك إذ يستحيل أن يكون زائل العقل شاعرًا.

وقد ردّ عليهم الحقّ عزّ وجلّ في افترائهم الأوّل بقوله: (وما صاحبكم بمجنون)،18 وقوله: (ما أنت بنعمة ربّك بمجنون).19 وردّ عليهم في بهتانهم الثاني بقوله: (وما علّمناه الشعر وما ينبغي له إن هو إلاّ ذكر وقرآن مبين).20

وخلاصة فهم العرب الجاهليّين للإلهام أنّه قوّة أصيلة لا يمتلكها إلاّ العبقريّ. والعبقريّ نسبة إلى موضع يقال له “عبقر”. وهو:

قرية تسكنها الجنّ فيما زعموا، فكلّما رأوا شيئًا فائقا غريبا ممّا يصعب عليه ويدقّ أو لاحظوا شيئًا عظيما في نفسه نسبوه إليه فقالوا: “عبقريّ، ثمّ اتّسع فيه حتّى سمّي به السّيد الكبير”.21

نعم، إنّ الإلهام والعبقريّة عند القدماء وجهان لعملة واحدة.

فالعبقرية إذن من الظواهر الخارقة عند الناس، فقد ردّوها إلى قوى فوق الطبيعة ولم يلتمسوها في نفوس أصحابها المعبّرين عنها بالإبداع في الشعر وسائر الفنون، وإنّما التمسوها بين الأرباب والشياطين والجنّ، وتوسّلوا إلى تفسيرها بعقد صلة أو صلات بينها وبين حميان الخمر وهذيان السكارى وتخليط المجانين.22

فالربط الشديد الذي أوجدوه بين السكران والجنون من ناحية والشاعريّة من ناحية أخرى منذ القدم هو الذي حمل إبراهيم عبد القادر المازني على أن يقول:

ثلاثـة روضهم بـاكر        الصّبّ والمجنون والشاعـر

ولعلّ من الخير أن نختم هذا الفصل ببيان ما يعنيه القدماء بالشيطانالذي استعملوه مرادفا للجنّ في بعض أشعارهم

فالشيطان هو الجنيّ، أي الرّوح المستترةومعلوم أنّ من العرب من كانوا يعبدون الجنّ، ويجعلونه شركاء لله، بيدهم الضّرّ والنفع، والخير والشّرّ، والجنّ بهذا المعنى مرادفة للشياطين خيرة أم شريرة، ثمّ اكتسبت كلمة الشياطين معنى أرواح الشّرّ بعد ذلك،.وبخاصة بعد استقرار الإسلام.23

          وخلاصة القول أنّ مردّ الشعر ومصدره عند القدماء قوّة خارجيّة هي إمّا ربات الشعر (أو الآلهة) أو شياطين أو جنّ. وبربات الشعر والآلهة قال اليونان، وبالشياطين والجنّ قالت العرب، كما أثبتنا بالنقول الصّريحة.

 

فصل: حقائق توصّل إليها الإسلاميّون في قضيّة الإلهام

ولئن بقي أمر الإلهام عند الباحثين الأقدمينكما رأينا في الفصل السابقغامضا مشبوبا، فلقد اهتدى النُقَّاد والأدباء المسلمونمنذ العصور الإسلامية الأولىإلى كشف النقاب عن بعض ما عزاه سلفهم إلى العبقرية أو الجنّ أو الشيطان. نعم، قد يعذر أفلاطون ومن تبعه من اليونان والرومان في تخميناتهم وتخييلاتهم، قد يعفى عن الجاهليّين غير الشعراء في فرط تقديرهم للشعر حتّى جعلوه إلهيّا أو شيطانيًّا، لكنّنا لا نفهم كيف طاب للشعراء أن يزيدوا الناسَ غيَّا، وذلك حين أقرّوهم في وهمهم، والذهاب إلى أنّ لهم في الحقيقة شياطين يوحون لهم زخزف القول، وجنّا ينفثون في روعهم الشعر، وهم على يقين أنّهم في ادّعائهم لكاذبون!

ولا نكاد ندخل في العصر الإسلاميّ حتّى وجدنا فحول الشعراء يعترفون أنّ منبع شعرهم ليس إلاّ حفظهم ومعايشتهم للنصوص الشعرية التي خلفها القدماء، إضافة إلى استعدادهم الفطريّ لتقبّل صفة الشاعريّة. وهذا هو الفرزدقوهو من هولا يتحرّج في أن يثبت هذه الحقيقة في قصيدة طويلة منها:

وهب القصائد لي النوابغ إذ مضوا**  وأبو يزيد وذو القروح وجرول

والفحل عـلقمة  الذي كانت لـه**  حلل الملوك كلامه لا ينـحـل

وأخـو بنـي قيس  وهـنّ قتلنـه**  ومهلهل  الشعـراء ذاك الأوّل

والأعشيان  كـلاهمـا  ومـرقّش**  وأخو قضاعـة قولـه يتمـثّل

وأخو بني  أسد  زهـير   وابـنـه**  وابن الفريعة حـين جدّ  المقوَل

والجعفريّ وكــان  بشـر قبـله**  لي من قصائـده الكتاب المجْمَل

ولـقد ورثت لآل أوس مـنطـقا**  كالسّمّ خالط جانبيه  الحنظـل

والحـارثيّ أخـو الحماس ورثتـه**  صدْعا كما صدع الصفاة المعْوَل

والفرَزدق يذكر فيما أُسْلِفَ أنّه كان يروي لاثنين وعشرين شاعرا من الجاهليين والمخضرمين، وأنّهم بروايته لشعرهمهم الذين وهبوا له الشعر، وأنّ كثيرا منهم “قوله يتمثّل”، ولما ذكر بشرًا أردف أنّ له “من قصائده الكتاب المجمل”. فالنتيجةإذنأن لا شيطان، ولا جنّ، ولا عبقر، ولا اجتلاء للغيب!

وإذا تقدّمنا قليلا إلى العصر العباسيّ عصر ازدهار الثقافة العربيّة في شتّى مجالاتها رأينا شاعرا في قامة أبي العلاء المعريّ يقرّ في أكثر من بيت شعر أنّه لا يملك فيما يملي عليه قريحته إلاّ الظّنّ والحدس. فقد قال مرّة:

أمّا اليقـين فـلا يقـين وإنّما أقصى اجتهادي أن أظنّ وأحدسا!

وقال مرّة أخرى:

سألتموني فأعيتني إجابتكم         من ادّعى أنّه دارٍ فقد كذبا

ونجده أعلى رغم ما قيل عنه من رقّة الدينيوكّل الأمر إلى الله، وأن لا علم لغيره سبحانه في بيت ثالث يقول فيه:

والناس في تيه بـلا أمر     والله يفصل عنده الأمـر

أقول لو أنّ للشاعر أن يدعيّ لشاعريّته الوحي والنفث الربانيّ أو القوّة الخارقة لكان المعريّ ذلك الشاعر. وكيف لا وهو الذي سلك بنفسه طريقا وعرًا في إبداع الشعر، وأحدث بذلك انقلابا لا يطيقه غيره في تاريخ الأدب العربيّ حتّى اشتهر فنّه هذا باللزوميات أو لزوم ما لا يلزم؟! أليس هو الذي امتلأ تراثه الشعري حكما وعبرا وتجارب حتّى لقّب بجدارة فيلسوف الشعراء؟ ألم يذهب به خياله في “رسائل الغفران” إلى أن يوهمأو يتخيّل بالتعبير الأصحّأنّه يطلّ على عالم الغيب؟ وإذا قال شاعر تُحسب له هذه الحسابات كلّها أنّ صنيعه ضرب من ضروب الظّنّ والحدس فَمَن غيرُه يُصدّق إن قال إنّ عمله قبس من الوحي أو إيحاء من الجنّ؟

وبهذه المناسبة أثبت ما قاله أحد أعلام النقد الحديث معلّقا على داليّته الشهيرة المفتتحة بقوله:

غير مجـٍد في ملّتي واعتقادي       نوح باك ولا ترنّم شاد

فإنّنا نقف خشعا أمام شعور إنسانيّ عميق، وأمام تعبير تصويريّ موح، يزحم المشهد بالصّور والظلال، ويهمس فيه بالوجدانات والأحاسيس، ويرتفع إلى الطراز الأوّل من الشعر الإنسانيّ بكلّ قيمه الشعورية والتعبيرية. ولا يفوتني أن أنبّه خاصّة إلى الإيقاع الموسيقى في كلّ بيت. ومع أنّ الأبيات كلّها من وزن واحد إلاّ أنّها تختلف إيقاعا، لأنّ الوزن وحده لا يحدّد لون الإيقاع.24

ولقد أوردت كلّ هذا لأثبت أنّ للإسلام الفضل الأوّل في إفحام الشعراء في تضليلهم، وإزالة اللّثام عن حقيقة الإلهام، وفي الإثبات أنّ للنقاد المسلمين سعيا مشكورا في تسجيلهم سرّ تفتّق الشعر على ألسنة الشعراء. وقد نصّ صاحب الأغاني على سلسلة من هؤلاء الشعراء الرّواة الذين يأخذ بعضهم عن بعض، وقد بدأها بأوس بن حجر التّميميّ، فعنه أخذ الشعرَ ورواه حتّى أجاد نظمه زهيرٌ بن أبي سلمى المزني، وكان له راويتان كعب ابنه والحطيئة، وعن الحطيئة تلقّن الشعر ورواه هُدبةُ بن خشرم العذري، وعن هدبة أخذ جميل صاحب بثينة، وعن جميل أخذ كثيّر صاحب عزّة.25

وإثبات هذه الحقائق من حسنات كتاب الأغاني في تأريخه للأدب. فإذا تشبّثنا بظاهر هذه الرّواية قلنا بأنّ التلمذة بيد شاعر مجيد واستعاب نتاجه الأدبيّ هو الملهم الأوّل للشعراء، ولا نريد أن نبعد إلى هذا الحدّ. ويكفي لهذه الحقيقة أن تذيب لغز الجنّ أو وادي عبقر وما يعلّمانه الشعراء ممّا شاع وساد عند الجاهليّين:

ولو أنّ الرّواة لم يرووا لنا هذه الصلات الجامعة أو الرابطة بين الشعراء الجاهليّين لحدسناها حدسا من اتّفاقهم على تقاليد فنيّة واحدة، مهما شرّقنا وغرّبنا في الجزيرة، وهي تقاليد جاءت من تمسّكهم بنماذج أسلافهم لا يحيدون عنها ولا ينحرفون، فهي دائما الإمام المتّبع، وهم كلّ شاعر أن يتقن معرفته عن طريق ما يحفظ من شعر أستاذه وشعراء قبيلته.26

والقرآن الكريم ذلك الكتاب الذي لا ريب فيهقد أحدث في نظريّة الإلهام شيئين هما في منتهى الأهميّة في دراسة هذه الظاهرة. أوّلهما أنّه جعل الإلهام الحقّ منوطا بمصدر إلهي، وهو إلهام النبوة أو ما يسمّى على وجه التحقيق بالوحي، وإلهام الصالحين من الشعراء الذين يؤيّدهم “روح القدس”كما أثبته النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لحسّان رضي الله عنه في الرواية المشهورة. ومفهوم هذا أنّه أكد بطريقة غير مباشرة انتماء إلهام الشعراء غير الصالحين إلى عالم الشياطين. والثاني أنّه جعل لكل إنسان شيطانا يوحي إليه بالباطل والشر، (وإذا خلوا إلى شياطينهم قالوا إنّا معكم).27 فنزع عن الشعراء ما كانوا يظنّون أنهم متميّزون فيه؛ وذلك حين قرن لكلّ إنسان شيطانه الخاصّ به.28

بقي هناك سؤال يطرح نفسه في الساحة، ويفرض نفسه على الأذهان، وهو: هل هذه الحقيقة غائبة عن الشعراء الأقدمين؟ فكون الجواب “لا” من البداهة بحيث لا ينكر. ولماذا ذهبوا في معمعة النّاس في حكاية الجنّ والشيطان؟ يرى إدحار الآن بو “أنّ كبرياء الشعراء هو الباعث لهم على عدم اعترافهم بما يعانون في صنعة الشعر. فهم لا يصفون ذلك الجهد، ليتركوا الآخرين يفهمون أنّهم ينظّمون عفو الخاطر”.29

ومن هنا توصّل الباحثون إلى أنّ عمليّة الإبداع الفنّيّ ليست في الواقع عمليّة مفاجئة بالنسبة للشاعر، بل إنّه يكون مستعدّا لها نفسيًّا وذهنيّا بطريقة شعورية أو لا شعوريّة، وأنّ المادة التي يجري الإلهام بها قلمه هي نتاج قراءاته القديمة وتأمّلاته، والصّور التي يتضمّنها إنتاجه الفنيّ لا بدّ أن تكون مخترنة في ذاكرته”.30

وليس يعني هذا كلّه أنّ دارسي الأدب الإسلاميّينأقدميهم ومحدثيهمينفون الإلهام جملة وتفصيلا. أمّا المنفيّ عندهم هو وجهة نظر الأدباء والنقاد الجاهليّين عربهم وعجمِهِمْعلى حدِّ سواءٍ له.

(الجنون المقدّس) و(الجنون الإلـهي) المرادفان للإلهام ممّا توصف به العبقريّة، فكلّها غريبة عن الأدب، ولا جدوى منها له في شيء، ولكن الذي ليس غريبا للأدب هو الإلهام بالمعنى الآخر.31

فصل: دور علم النفس الحديث في دعم موقف المسلمين

فالمحصول من القول هو أنّه وإن كان لا بدّ للشاعر قبل أن يوجد شعرا خالدا من إلهام فلا بدّ لهذا الإلهام من تربة ينبت عليها، فإذا استوت شجرته على سوقه في صدر الشاعر ألف السامع والقارئ منه شعرا رائعا تهوله روعته. والإلهام ومنبته هو الذي حاول الإمام عبد القاهر الجرجاني أن يضع يد الفنّان المتذوّق عليه حيث قال:

ما أنت ترى الحسن يهجم عليك منه دفعة، ويأتيك منه ما يملأ العين غرابة حتّى تعرف من البيت الواحد مكان الرجل من الفضل، وموضعه من الحذق، وتشهد له بفضل المنّة وطول الباع، وحتّى تعلم إن لم تعلم القائل أنّه من قبل شاعر فحل، وأنّه خرج من تحت يد صنّاع، وذلك ما إذا أنشدته وضعت فيه اليد على شيء فقلت: هذا هذا. وما كان كذلك فهو الشعر الشاعر، والكلام الفاخر، والنمط العالي الشريف، والذي لا تجده إلاّ في شعر الفحول البذل ثمّ المطبوعين الذين يلهمون القول إلهاما.32

ثبت مما أسلفنا أنّ الإلهام المَرْضِيّ نوع من أنواع الإبداع لأنّ “عمليّة الإبداع لا تتّخذ صورة واحدة عند جميع الشعراء، بل إنّ لها أربع صور كما يقول دي لاكروا: “الإبداع المفاجئ (الإلهام)، الإبداع البطيء، الإبداع اليقظ الشعوري، الإبداع الخاضع لحكم العادة”.33

أمّا الإلهام المتقّطع الذي يأتي الأدباء متثاقلا فهو الذي سمّاه دي لاكرو بالإبداع البطيء، خلافًا للإبداع الذي يهجم على صاحبه جملة واحدةً، ويتكون من أثره عمل أدبيّ كامل. وإن أردت مثالاً للنوع الثالث الذي هو الإبداع اليقظ الشعوري فاقرأ قول الدكتور طه حسين حيث يقول:

كنت منصرفا عمّن كان معي وعمن كان من حولي إلى هذا الغدير، أسمع خريره وأبتهج به، وما هي إلاّ دقائق حتّى أنسيت كلّ شيء، وحتّى اقتنعت بأنّي لا أسمع خرير الماء، وإنمّا أسمع نجوى المحبّين. لا أقصد إلى خيال ولا إلى شعر، وإنّما أذكر ما أحسست، وما وجدت، كما أحسسته وكما وجدته، نعم، كنت مقتنعا بأنّي أسمع في الماء المنحدر حديث المحبّين، وكان هذا الحديث مختلفًا باختلاف انحدار الماء قوّة وضعفًا: هنا ينحدر الماء في قوّة، وينزلق على جماعة من الصّخور قائمة، فتسمع لانحداره أصواتا مختلفة مرتفعة في اعتدال، وما هي إلاّ أن تتمثّل الحبيبين في ثورة ولوعة واضطراب وعتب وخصام، ثمّ تمضي فإذا مجرى الغدير قد لان واعتدل، وإذا الماء يمشي عليه هيّنا ليّنا، وإذا خريره هادئ رفيق، وإذا أنت تتمثل هؤلاء المحبّين وقد هدأت ثورتهم، وبردت لوعتهم، وانصرفوا عن الخصومة والعتاب إلى هذا النحو من الرّضا.34

والإبداع الخاضع لحكم العادة هو الناتج عن خبرات الكاتب الإجتماعية، وتشمل هذه الخبرات ما يُشاهده في بيئته، وما يطلع عليه من كتابات الآخرين. ويقبل منه ما فجّره في فكره ما اطّلع عليه من نتاج الآخرين ما دام قد تصرّف فيه تصرّفا لبقا، وأجاد في مخالفته في تصويره. وتأثر اللائق بالسابق أمر مألوف في الأدب ومأنوس في الذوق. يقول الدكتور عبد القادر القطّ في مقدّمته الطويلة لترجمته لمسرحية الأديب الكبير شكسبير (Shakespeare)، بل إحدى مسرحياته الشهيرة (هاملت) (Hamlet):

ولعلّ شكسبير قد استعان في فهمه لنفسيّة هاملت ببعض الدراسات النفسية، ومن بينها رسالة عن الكآبة نشرت عام 1586م لتبموثي برايت (Timothy Bright)، ويبدو أن شكسبير قد تأثر ببعض عباراته وأفكاره، لكن تصويره لكآبة هاملت يختلف اختلافا كبيرًا في جوهره عمّا رسمه برايت.35

ومن هنا نرى أنّ لعلم النفس الحديث دورا في إماطة الستار عن الإبداع المفاجئ الذي هو الإلهام. فالدراسات النفسية العلميّة هي التي اكتشفت عالم اللاّشعور الذي يضادّه عالم الشعور. وفي كتاب (عالم الأحلام) الذي نشره سيجموند فرويد (1856-1939م) في سنة 1900م ما يدعم هذا الموقف. وفرويد هذا هو الذي:

يقرّر أنّ الحلم ترجمة للرغبات المكبوتة في عالم الشعور. فكلّ رغبة من هذه الرغبات المكبوتة لا تضيع، بل ترسب في عالم اللاّشعور، ولكنّها لا ترسب إلاّ لتطفو في الحلم، لتتحقّق في شكل من الأشكال.36

فالفنّ كالحلمتحقيق وهمي للرغبات، وهو تعبير عن أمل مكبوت في الشعور، انتقلبسبب الكبت، أو بسبب الرقابة المفروضة في عالم الشعورإلى اللاّشعور، وفي الصور الأدبيّة تظهر خصائص صور الأحلام، من نقل القيم، والخلط المكاني والزماني.37

وهكذا رأينا العلم يزيل الوهم عن الإلهام شيئًا فشيئًا، إلاّ أنّ من المؤسف في العصر الحديث أن يحمل بعضَ الناس الحميّةُ الجاهليّة على الانضمام إلى صفّ أفلاطون ومن لفّ لفّه. ونجد شللي يتّبعه اتّباعا أعمى حيث قال:

ولقد كان الشعراء في العصور الأولى التي مرّت به هذه الدنيا يسمّون تارة مشرّعين وطورا أنبياء حسب العصور التي ظهروا فيها، والأمم التي نبغوا منها. صدق الأوّلون! فإنّ الشاعر جامع أبدا بين هذين في نفسه؛ لأنّه لا يقتصر على رؤية الحاضر كما هو، ولا يجتزئ باستطلاع القوانين والأنظمة الّتي ينبغي أن تنزّل على حكمها أمور، بل يستشفّ المستقبل من وراء الحاضر!… والشعراء هم قساوسة التنزيل الإلهيّ ورسل الوحي القدسيّ وشرّاح الحكمة الرّبّانية!…وهم المرايا التي تتراها في مقالها أظلال المستقبل الضخمة الكشيفة الملقاة على الحاضر!38

وليس عند الغربيّين فقط توجد بقيّة من آثار الوهم الأفلاطونيّ، بل من المدهش أنّه:

قد كانت هذه النظرة العجيبة إلى الأدباء والمتفنّنين شائعة في العالم كلّه، شيوعها في مصر والعالم العربيّ إلى عهد قريب، ممّا دعا فريقا من الناس أن يشذّ عن المجتمع في المظهر والتخلّق فيطيل شعره أو يرسل لحيته بلا ترجيل أو تشذيب، ويبالغ في إهمال هندامه أو يتّخذ من الهندام ما لا يتناسب من الألوان والأجزاء والمقاييس، ويسهر اللّيل كلّه، وينام النهار كلّه، ويرسل القول غير المعقول، ويسجّل العبارة غير السوية، تأكيدا للناس بأنّه أديب أو شاعر أو فنّان.39

فهذا موقف من لا يزال على أبصارهم غشاوة وعلى قلوبهم رين، وليس يختلف عاقلان في العصر الحديث أن لا جنّ ولا شيطان يعلّم أو يوحي إلى الشاعر، وإنّما الذي وصل إليه المحقّقون هو ما قد أثبتناه أنّه تذكّر تلقائيّ أو إبداع مفاجئ يمتلك الشاعر الملكة الطبعية والاستعداد الفطريّ لصوغه صياغة تروق السّمع والقلوب. على أنّ هذه الملكة أو الذوق الإبداعيّ بتعبير آخرلا بدّ أن تنمّى وتصقل بآلات أخرى تحتفل بها كتب البلغاء والنّقّاد. وهذا هو ابن سنان الخفاجي يقول معدّدا بعض هذه الآلات:

ويحتاج الشاعر خاصة إلى خمسة عشر بحرا التي ذكرها الخليل ابن أحمد، وما يجوز فيها من الزحاف، ولست أوجب عليه المعرفة بها لينظم بعلمه، فإنّ النظم مبنيّ على الذوق، ولو نظم بتقطيع الأفاعيل جاء شعره متكلّفا غير مرضيّ، وإنّما أريد له معرفة ما ذكرته من العروض، لأنّ الذوق ينبو عن بعض الزحافات، وهو جائز في العروض، وقد ورد للعرب مثله، فلولا علم العروض لم يفرّق بين ما يجوز من ذلك وما لا يجوز.40

ومهما يكن من شيء فمسألة الإلهام مسألة سهلة إذا لم تعقّد بالتخمينات والأساطير والسفسطائيّة.

والحيرة حول معرفة مصدر الإلهام خاصة بالإلهام الذي يصاحب عمليّة الإنتاج الأدبيّ وقت انبثاقه من عقل صاحبه. ولا أظنّ أنّ هذه الحيرة سوف تبقى عندما نفهم الإلهام على أنّه استعداد كامن في نفس الأديب الفنّان، وأنّه ملكة يولد الإنسان بها، ويفطر عليها، وتكاد تكون غريزة فيه، وهذه حقيقة نراها عند نقّادنا العرب لا اختلاف عليها. ذلك لأنّهم يرون أنّ الأثر الأدبيّ الجيّد لا يمكن أن يكون إلاّ عن نفس ملهمة.41

          نعم، إنّ الأثر الأدبيّ الجيّد لا يمكن أن يكون إلاّ عن نفس ملهمة، وهذا الإلهام لا يتأتّى إلاّ عن تجربة سابقة شعورية أو غير شعورية -كما أسلفنا-، وإن أردنا أن نردّه إلى قوّة خارجيّة قلنا إنّه من الله العليم الحكيم ولا إلى غيره ممّا تخمّنه أساطير الأوّلين. وهذا هو الحقّ الذي لا حقّ سواه، يقول ابن المقفع:

“وجلّ الأدب بالمنطق وكلّ المنطق بالتعلّم ليس حرف من حروف معجمه، ولا اسم من أنواع أسمائه إلا وهو مرويّ متعلّمٌ مأخوذ عن إمام سابق من كلام أو كتاب، وذلك دليل على أنّ النّاس لم يبتدعوا أصولها، ولم يأتهم علمها إلاّ مِن قِبل العليم الحكيم”.42

          ولعل من الطريف أن ننهي البحث أنّ جميع ما تقدّم من القول – عدا النّصّين الأخيرين وبعض إشارات طفيفة من القدماء- في تحقيق مصدر الإلهام وحقيقته منحصرٌ في الإبداع الشعريّ، أليس من حقّ الأديب الناثر أن يكون ملهمًا – بمعنى الإلهام الصّحيح- قبل أن يكتب؟! وأرى أنّ حكر القول في الشعر يقضي ببخس النثر حقّه أو تهوين شأنه، فالأديب الناثر- في رأيي المتواضع- ليس بأقلّ شأنًا من زميله الشاعر، وهذه المسألة خليقة بالبحث جديرة بالعناية. والله أعلى وأعلم.

 


خاتـمة

          وقد عرضت في الصفحات السابقة مواقف الأدباء والنقاد قديما وحديثا، عربا وعجمامن قضيّة الإلهام، وتوصّل البحث حول القضيّة إلى النتائج الآتية:

1 –    أنّ القول بضرورة الإلهام في عمليّة الإنتاج الشعري قديم قدم التاريخ.

2 –    أنّ الأدباء والنقاد العجم قد ذهبوا مذهب العرب – أو قريبا منه- في تقرير المسألة.

3 –    أن قول العرب فيما حكي عنهم القرآن الكريمأنّ النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم شاعرٌ مجنون مدْحٌ له، وإن بدا ذمًّا في أوّل وهلة.

4 –    أنّ الإلهام إن عُنِيَ به الإبداع المفاجئ الذي يحصل للأديب في بعض الأحايين فهو حقٌّ، وأمّا إن كان ما يُعنَي به أنّ للجنّ أثرًا في سيلان قلم الشاعر، أو أنّ للشاعر اطّلاعًا للغيب، أو اتّصالا بوادي عبقر فهو طيفٌ من الخيال، فيكون إذًاباطلا بدليل النقل الصريح والعقل السليم.

5 –     أنّ لعلم النفس الحديث دورًا كبيرًا في إزالة الستار عن قضيّة الإلهام.

6 –    أنّ هناك شرذمة من النقاد المعاصرين لا يزالون يتمسّكون بالقول القديم البالي في قضيّة الإلهام حيث يثبتونه بصورته الباطلة.

          هذا، وأوصي أرباب هذه الصناعة أن يدلو بدلائهم في هذه المسألة، ويتوسَّعوا في دراستها، عسى أن يتوصّلوا إلى خير ما توصّلت إليه، أو يصلوا إلى غير ما وصلت إليه، فليس العلم حِكرًا على أحد، ولا يظهر الحقّ في القضايا العلمية العويصة إلاّ بالبحث والتنقيب.


الهوامش

1 –    عبد الحميد يونس، الأسس الفنيّة للنقد الأدبي، ص74.

2 –    أحمد بن فارس، معجم مقاييس اللغة، ج5، ص216، مادة (لهم).

3 –    سورة الشمس، الآيتان، 8 و9

4 –    إبراهيم أنيس ورفاقه، المعجم الوسيط، مادة (لهم)، ص824.

5 –    محمّد غنيمي هلال، النقد الأدبي الحديث، ص371.

6 –    طـه مصطفى أبو كريشة، أصول النقد الأدبيّ، ص146.

7 –    النقد الأدبيّ الحديث، ص21.

8 –    الأسس الفنية للنقد الأدبي، ص74-75.

9 –    المرجع السابق، ص76.

10 –  عمرو بن بحر الجاحظ، كتاب الحيوان، 6/225.

11 –  ينظر:  المصدر السابق، 6/225-229.

12 –  النقد الأدبيّ الحديث، ص366.

13 –  ينظر: العصر الإسلامي، د. شوقي ضيف، ص79-81.

14 –  أصول النقد الأدبيّ، ص147.

15 –  الأسس الفنية للنقد الأدبيّ، 76.

16 –  سورة الدخان، الآيتان 13 و14.

17 –  سورة الصافات، الآية 36.

18 –  سورة التكوير، الآية 22.

19 –  سورة القلم، الآية 2.

20 –  سورة يس، الآية 69.

21 –  ابن منظور الإفريقي، لسان العرب، م9، مادة عبقر، ص23.

22 –  الأسس الفنية للنقد الأدبي، ص77.

23 –  النقد الأدبيّ الحديث، 367.

24 –  سيّد قطب، النقد الأدبي أصوله ومناهجه، ص69.

25 –  شوقي ضيف، الشعر الجاهليّ،  ص142.

26 –  الشعر الجاهليّ، ص143.

27 –  سورة البقرة، الآية 14.

28 –  إحسان عباس، ينظر: تاريخ النقد الأدبي عند العرب، ص23.

29 –  النقد الأدبي الحديث، ص369.

20 –  محمّد مصطفى هدّارة، مشكلة السرقات في النّقد العربيّ، ص275.

31 –  النقد الأدبيّ الجديث، ص370-371.

32 –  عبد القاهر الجرجاني، دلائل الإعجاز، ص70-71.

33 –  مشكلة السرقات في النقد العربي، ص273-274.

34 –  من رسائل العقاد، محمد محمود حمدان، ص300 -301

35 –  هاملت، وليام شكسبير، ترجمة الدكتور عبد القادر القطّ، ص10.

36 –  المرجع السابق، ص371.

37 –  إبراهيم عبد القادر المازني، الشعر غاياته ووسائطه، ص35.

38 –  الأسس الفنيّة للنقد الأدبيّ، ص78-79.

39 –  ابن سنان الخفاجي، سرّ الفصاحة، ص289.

40 –  أصول النقد الأدبيّ، ص150.

41 –  عبد الله بن المقفّع، الأدب الصغير، (مطبوع في مجلّد كبير يحمل اسم “آثار ابن المقفّع)، ص283.


المصادر والمراجع

 القرآن الكريم.

إبراهيم أنيس ورفاقه، (د.ت):  المعجم الوسيط، مادة (ألهم).

إبراهيم عبد القادر المازني، (1990م): الشعر غاياته ووسائطه، تحقيق د. فايز ترحيني، دار الفكر اللبناني، الطبعة الثانية.

ابن منظور الإفريقي، (1416-1995م): لسان العرب، موسّسة التاريخ العربي (بيروت)، الطبعة الأولى.

أبو عثمان الجاحظ، (1388هـ/1060م): كتاب الحيوان، تحقيق عبد السلام محمد هارون، دار إحياء التراث العربي، (بيروت)، الطبعة الثالثة.

أبو محمد عبد الله بن محمد بن سعيد بن سنان الخفاجيّ، (د.ت): سرّ الفصاحة، دار الكتب العلمية (بيروت)، الطبعة الأولى.

إحسان عباس، (1988م)، تاريخ النقد الأدبي عند العرب، دار الشروق (عمّانالأردن.)

أحمد بن فارس اللّغوي، (د.ت):  معجم مقاييس اللّغة، (د.ن.)

الإمام عبد القاهر الجرجاني، (د.ت): دلائل الإعجاز، طبعة محمّد رشيد رضا، دار الكتب العلمية (بيروت).

عبد الحميد يونس، (1996م): الأسس الفنية للنقد الأدبيّ، دار المعرفة (القاهرة)، الطبعة الثانية.

سيّد قطب، (د.ت): النقد الأدبي: أصوله ومناهجه، دار الفكر العربيّ.

شوقي ضيف، (د.ت): الشعر الجاهليّ، دار المعارف، الطبعة الثالثة.

شوقي ضيف، (د.ت): العصر الإسلامي، دار المعارف، بمصر، الطبعة السادسة.

عبد الله ابن المقفّع، (1409هـ/1989م): أثار ابن المقفّع، دار الكتب العلميّة (بيروت)، الطبعة الأولى.

طـه مصطفى أبو كريشة، (1996م): أصول النقد الأدبيّ، مكتبة لبنان ناشرون  الطبعة الأولى.

محمّد غنيمي هلال، (د.ت): النقد الأدبي الحديث، دار نهضة مصر.

محمّد محمود حمدان، (1418هـ/1997م): من رسائل العقّاد، الدار المصريّة اللّبنانية، (القاهرة)، الطبعة الأولى.

محمّد مصطفى هدّارة، (1981م): مشكلة السرقات في النقد العربيّ، المكتب الإسلاميّ.

وليام شكسبير، (1402هـ/1982م): هاملت، ترجمة الدكتور عبد القادر القطّ، دار الأندلس، (بيروت)، الطبعة الأولى.

EFFICACIOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE SUPPLICATIONS FROM THE QUR’AN AND SUNNAH

 

EFFICACIOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE SUPPLICATIONS FROM THE QUR’AN AND SUNNAH

(with useful hints about the essence, conditions and etiquettes of invocations)

                                                                                           

Selected, arranged and prefaced by:

Abdul-Hafeez Adeniyi Ahmad Adedimeji,

 Chief Imam,

 Fountain University,

Osogbo.

 

E-mail: abdulhafeezmeji@hotmail.com& abdulhafeezmeji@yahoo.com

Tel: +2348059310129& +2348121521380


 

ÉOó¡Î0 «!$# Ç`»uH÷q§9$# ÉOŠÏm§9$#

In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

Praise belongs to Allâh, to Whom all praise is due. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allâh, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. May the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him, his family and his companions.

The primary origin of this booklet is  a response to the request of a student who approached me for some vital selected prayers\supplications. She said she personally want me to recommend to her some indispensable prayers which she will always stick to. Pressed further, she said she prefers that the prayers are Qur’ânic in source and comprehensive in scope. Knowing fully that there are books that are authored on invocations the most popular of which is Hisnul-Muslim (The Fortress of the Believer) by the popular Saudi scholar, Sheikh Saceed Ibn Wahf Al-Qahtâni, I know the intention of the student in question is for me to cater for her need directly and not to direct her to any source. Also, I observe that the book, as popular and useful it is, does not primarily quench her thirst as most of the supplications therein are Prophetic supplications for different specified occasions and events. Earlier, a lecturer has also requested that I write a specific supplication that I mentioned in the course of my Khutbah (weekly Friday sermon) for him. Due to time constraints when do the request was made, I promised to do this for him on the following day but I forgot to fulfill the promise and the man did not remind me either.

The result of my determination not fail the former and to fulfill for the latter is what the reader is having in his hands. I searched through the Glorious Qur’ân and gathered these prayers that I know are comprehensive in n nature and are, therefore, fulfilling to their requests. Also, I wanted to enlighten the duo that what they requested for is a noble one but that acceptance of supplications is not automatic. Hence, I preface the invocations with conditions (i.e. factors for and against acceptance) of prayers. Realising that these Qur’ânic prayers, as vital as they are, may not be enough for a Muslim in his daily needs, I added the morning and evening Remembrance of Allâh and some other few selected popular Prophetic ducâs  (prayers\supplications) that are well-known from authoritative sources. It is after all these has been done that the idea of making its contents available to other like-minded University staff, students and the wider audience manifests. The booklet also aims at teaching Muslims etiquettes of invocations, as earlier mentioned, as well as familiarizing them with relationship between Islam and Arabic.

Obviously, this work is not an academic paper and mentioning or listing its references are, therefore, unnecessary. However, one thing I can assure the reader is that all information therein are derived from either the Glorious Qur’ân or authentic traditions of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). In fact, most of the traditions (Prophetic sayings) that are cited as supplications were directly quoted and sourced  from the popular IslamicFinder website, albeit after correcting some transliterations that do not conform with the laid-down rules of experts of Islamics.

Finally, as it is an incontrovertible fact that no human effort can be perfect, I take full responsibility for all my mistakes and\errors in the work. I also request that any reader that notices these errors that might escaped me should kindly bring it to me as soon as possible.

I pray Allâh to accept this humble effort as an act of cIbâdah and forgive my trespasses therein and in all my life endeavours.

Was-Salâm cAlaeykum Warahmotullâh.

Abdul-Hafeez A.A. Adedimeji

5th Rajab, 1435  A.H. (5th May, 2014 C.E.)

Beloved brothers and sisters in Islâm,

As-Salâm cAlaeykum Warahmatullâh Wabarakâtuh.

The significance and importance of prayers and invocations to Allâh in the life of Muslims at both communal and individual levels cannot be over-emphasised. This fact has been buttressed by Almighty Allâh where He says in the Glorious Qur’ân: [Say (O Muhammad): “My Lord pays attention to you only because of your invocation to Him”] Qur’ân, 25 (Suuratul-Furqân): 77. In another instance, the Exalted Allâh assures that He will immediately provide the request of His obedient and believing servant when He says: [  And when My slaves ask You (O Muhammad ) concerning Me, Then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when He calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). so let them obey Me and believe In Me, so that they may be led aright]. Qur’ān, 2 (Suuratul-Baqarah), verse 186. In fact, Almighty Allâh regards a non-supplicating human being as arrogant and, therefore, deserving His most severe torment on the Day of Judgment. This fact is unequivocally stated in Verse 60 of Chapter 40 (Suuratu Ghâfir) where He states inter alia:  [  And Your Lord said: “Invoke Me, [i.e. believe In My Oneness (Islâmic Monotheism)] (and ask Me for anything) I will respond to Your (invocation). Verily! those who scorn My Worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe In My Oneness, (Islâmic Monotheism)] they will surely enter Hell In humiliation! ]

It is in view of the significance of supplications\invocations and their desirability, or even inevitability, in the life of a muslim nay every sane and conscious individual that I compile these noble prayers from the purest source for the benefits of me and you. These prayers, as can be noticed, start with either “Our Lord!” or “My Lord!” which translate to (ربَّنَا) and ( (رَبِّ\رَبِّي to us (His servants) as the way He likes us to seek His blessings and protection, or the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was specifically taught to supplicate to his Lord or related to us as other Prophets’ Supplicating statements which Allâh instantly hearken to. The Glorious Qur’ân also traced few of them to some pious and righteous people who stick to their monotheistic belief in spite of obvious persecutions and\or humiliation from their relatives and\or contemporaries.

Lastly, I deliberately write these prayers\supplications in their original Arabic and English translations according to the versions of the two great translators, Muhsin Khan and Yusuf Ali. Knowing that texts of the Qur’ân are not fully translatable and their real meanings and beauties can only be better appreciated and\or comprehended by those who speak Arabic. It is in view of this fact that I accompany the texts with two globally accepted translations so that the two will complement each other. I also avoid transliterating (i.e. writing Arabic texts with English or any other foreign language) because of gross blunders that people who do not speak Arabic commit when they pronounce Arabic words. For the prayers to be efficacious, I recommend that they should be better said in Arabic. If the supplicant does not speak Arabic and cannot pronounce Arabic words corrected, he\she should result to English translation or any other language that he\she knows well.

It is pertinent to know the relationship between Arabic and Islam in general at this juncture. In other words, why is it preferable to supplicate in Arabic, most especially if it has to do with Qur’ânic texts? Simply put, Arabic is the mother tongue of the Arabs and the official language of  muslims. However, while it is true that muslims worldwide hold Arabic in high regards because of the fact that the Glorious Qur’ān was revealed in it and the consensus of Islamic scholars that this Holy Book is absolutely untranslatable, it is incorrect to say that “muslims regard Arabic as the only appropriate language of approach to Allāh” (Encyclopedia Americana 2006: 2\156).

The elaboration this general statement needs is that while there certain obligatory modes of Islamic worship that must be conducted in Arabic, like daily Salāt (obligatory or supererogatory  prayer) and some aspects of  hajj, a muslim is free to supplicate to his Lord and seek His blessings in his mother tongue or whatever language that pleases him. In a nutshell, while the Salāt  and some rituals of hajj (annual holy pilgrimage to Mecca in a specific period) must be observed in Arabic, muslims are encouraged, and not compelled, to learn the language.

What is more accurate on the relationship of Arabic with Islam vis-à-vis other faiths is the fact stated by another source thus:

“Classical Arabic is the language of the Qur’an. Arabic is closely associated with the religion of Islam because the Qur’an is written in the language, but it is nevertheless also spoken by Arab ChristiansMizrahi Jews and Iraqi Mandaeans. Most of the world’s Muslims do not speak Arabic as their native language, but many can read the Qur’ānic script and recite the Qur’an. Among non-Arab Muslims, translations of the Quran are most often accompanied by the original text” (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_language).

While it is clear from what we have said that supplication in one’s mother tongue is allowed in Islām, it is always better, more rewarding and effective to invoke Allāh in the way He Himself admonishes us to appeal to Him. He guides us in the Glorious Qur’ān: [ [It is] the Mark of Allāh (i.e. His Religion). And who is better than Allāh in ordaining religion? And we are His worshippers].  Qur’ān, 2 (Suuratul-Baqarah), verse 138.

In the light of the above, we can see what people who are enslaved and branded with marks, symbols and supplications that their fellow human beings concoct and recommend to them are losing. These people abandon the God-ordained way  and stick to their adopted authority; be it government, an Islamic organization, a sheikh (scholar) and\or madh’hab (School of Thought) in whatever they do, supplications inclusive. Such a people always see things, individuals, events, intellectual works in coloured lenses. Had they adhered to Allāh’s Mark (the  religion of Islām in its in its pristine form as revealed in Qur’ān and Sunnah, and as practiced by the righteous predecessors), they would have had the freedom of enjoying unadulterated beauties of knowledge, sweetness of acts of worship and desired results of prayers and supplications. The Exalted Allâh says: [ If they (non-Muslims) had believed In Allâh, and went on the Right Way (i.e. Islâm) we should surely have bestowed on them water (rain) In abundance. (So) that We might try them thereby. and Whosoever turns away from the Reminder of his Lord (i.e. This Qur’ân, and practice not its laws and Orders), He will put into enter In arduous  torment (i.e. Hell) ]. Qur’ān, 72 (Suuratul-Jinn), verses 16 and 17.

Once again, I will recommend that you, my beloved brothers and sisters, endeavour to supplicate with these Qur’ānic as much as you can in Arabic. You can also repeat them as much as available time permits you taking into cognisance that our most beloved the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) guides us in a sound tradition that odd numbers are most beloved to Allāh. However, in the invocation texts that are traceable to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), I soft-pedal as I write the transliteration texts alongside the original Arabic texts and their meanings. This is aimed at familiarizing those who are illiterates in the Arabic sense with these supplications.

It is however noteworthy that many people complain that although they practice this religious obligation (i.e. supplicating) regularly, their prayers were not granted and their wishes and aspirations do not come to fruition. These people are only being overzealous in their claim\s as there is no human being is not being favoured one way or the other. I will like to ask whoever who thinks he\she is being ignored by  Allâh  to think about his\her existence, does he\she determines his\her being alive or he\she owes it to the Perfect Creator?! Are you a healthy, seeing, hearing, smelling, talking and\or sane human being by your own design or all or some of these bounties you are enjoying are attributable to the Benevolent Creator and Perfect Designer?! If you have never pondered over it you better realize and appreciate it now!

After taking cognisance of the above-mentioned fact, we may say that there are some factors that serve as impediments to one’s supplications being granted by Allâh in the desired way as there others that prove to be facilitators of early and total acceptance of prayers. These factors are derived from relevant verses of the Glorious Qur’ân and authentic sayings of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) However, suffice is to list them at this juncture without quoting their proofs as that may unnecessarily elongate this hand-out that is intended to furnish the reader with the basic and best supplications a Muslim cannot do without.

The barriers to the acceptance of man’s supplications include:

  1. Divided loyalty: It may be that one supplicates to other than Allâh in the course of his invocation. This idolatry which is the greatest sin and greatest reason for non-acceptance.
  2. Hastiness: Allâh loves His creatures to be persistent and consistent in their prayers. However, some people are too hasty and are, therefore, likely to leave prayers in apathy and weariness before the desired fruits ultimately come their way.
  3. Inconsistency in prayers: As said earlier, a prayerful servant may be denied his requests from Allâh to his indecisiveness and inconsistency in his supplications. This means that one needs to be firm in order to be blessed with the positive impact of prayers.
  4. Allâh’s Wisdom: As man’s knowledge is limited and his desires are sometimes parochial, he may pray for something that will not be in his interest. To safeguard against granting what will harm him in the long term, Allâh at times deny him this request. In short, there may be acceptance of supplication in its denial.
  5. Wishing evils for others or undesirable things for self: This is closely related to the one mentioned earlier as it has to do with requests that are sinful and\or injurious to the supplicant’s moral, religious and\or physical well-being. In short, it is better that supplications against another persons or even against oneself not to granted.
  6. Dealing in Harâm (forbidden) transactions and consumption of prohibited foods and drinks: Man who requests Allâh’s favours should also endeavour to honour his covenant with the Lord. How would you want your Omnipresent Benefactor to continue granting you your wishes when you are wallowing in sins and rolling in ruinous escapades?!
  7. Nonchalant attitude towards wellbeing of the generality of fellow Muslims: The principal hallmark of Muslims as a people (Ummah) is enjoining to do the righteousness and forbidding what is evil. If this attribute is elusive in a society, Allâh may decide to punish the people individually or collectively by not granting their request\s.
  8. Inordinate pursuit of desires and succumbing to whims: Many people fail to realize that one of the main factors that distinguish man from animals is the ability to exercise control over one’s lusts and desires. If a man however degenerates to the status of animal by granting his body whatever it requires without minding Allâh’s injunctions, he may have to pay for it by being denied His much-needed requests and favours.
  9. Non-devotion in prayers: If man is found of the habit of straying away in his obligatory prayers (Salât) and daily supplication, he will have to forfeit his requests to Allâh as this lackadaisical attitude is tantamount to negligence and disrespect to the Merciful God. In essence, one should not invoke Allâh with an inattentive and neglectful heart.
  10. Non-adherence to the proper etiquette of supplications: acceptable supplications have some etiquettes that each Muslim has to strictly adhere to. These will be soon enumerated for everybody to note and observe.

On the contrary, facilitators of acceptance of prayers are the availability of factors that are direct opposite of the impediments that were mentioned and explained above. We will, therefore, list them without any illustration:

  1. Sticking to Halâl (permissible) things and deals alone.
  2. Repentance and return of entrusted things and\or properties to their rightful owners.
  3. The supplicant should not be in hurry in the cause of expectation of the prayers’ requests.
  4. Calling people to righteousness and forbidding them from evil.
  5. Total devotion and absolute concentration in prayers and during the times of invocations.
  6. Shunning evil wishes, satanic requests and immoral supplications.
  7. Righteousness and obedience to Allâh.
  8. Firmness and consistency in prayers and supplications.
  9. Fervent seeking of Allâh’s forgiveness.
  10. Supplicating the Lord with humility and in fear.
  11. Supplicating during specified times, circumstances and places when and where prayers are most likely to be granted. These include: mosques, when one has performed ablution, after the daily obligatory prays, after the Adhân (Call to prayer), during journey, when one is about to break his fast, in the Holiest Mosques of Makkah and Madeenah, on Arafat day, during prostration (Sujuud) in obligatory prayers, in an unspecified hour on Friday, in the early hours of the morning (i.e. few hours before Subh prayer, etc.

Also noteworthy is for the Muslim to know the etiquette of supplication. The beloved etiquette of the supplicant is to organize his invocation to Allâh as follows:

  1. He praises Allâh and extols Him.
  2. He gives his salutations to upon the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)
  3. He seeks repentance from his sins and acknowledges his wrongdoings.
  4. He thanks Allâh for His multiple blessings.
  5. He begins with his supplications, being keen to use the supplications mentioned in the Qur’ân, which are called Jawâmic (comprehensive) as we will soon unveil them, and the supplications that are authentically reported from the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), the most important and the commonest that will be mentioned afterwards.
  6. He closes the supplications with salutations upon the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)

As I now begin to roll out these all-important invocations to you, I pray that these invocations are effective for us, our requests granted, our prayers accepted and our supplications rewarded as it was the case with the anointed servants of Allâh (Prophets), the righteous successors of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and our other rightly guided predecessors that have supplicated with them  (A-a-m-e-e-n). I will start with the Qur’ânic prayers, precisely with the ones that are preceded with “Rabbanâ”s before I move to the ones that are begun with “Rabbi”s in the sequential order of their places in the Glorious Qur’ân.

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  1. Our Lord! and make us submissive unto You and of Our offspring a nation submissive unto you, and show us Our Manâsik (all the ceremonies of pilgrimage – Hajj and ‘ Umrah, etc.), and Accept Our repentance. Truly, You are the one who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.
  2. Our Lord! make of us Muslims, bowing to Thy (Will), and of Our progeny a people Muslim, bowing to Thy (will); and Show us Our place for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

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  1. and of them there are some who say: “Our Lord! give us In This world that which is good and In the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!”
  2. and there are men who say: “Our Lord! give us good In This world and good In the Hereafter, and defend us from the torment of the Fire!”

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  1. and when they advanced to meet Jalût (Goliath) and his forces, they invoked: “Our Lord! Pour forth on us patience and make us victorious over the disbelieving people.”
  2. when They advanced to meet Goliath and His forces, They prayed: “Our Lord! pour out constancy on us and make Our steps firm: help us against those that reject faith.”

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  1. Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which He has earned, and He is punished for that (evil) which He has earned. “Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did Lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); Our Lord! put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. have Mercy on us. You are Our Maulâ (Patron, Suppor-ter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people.”
  2. on no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear. it gets every good that it earns, and it suffers every ill that it earns. (Pray:) “Our Lord! Condemn us not if we forget or fall into error; Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which Thou Didst Lay on those before us; Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Blot out Our sins, and grant us Forgiveness. have Mercy on us. Thou art Our Protector; help us against those who stand against faith.”

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  1. (They say): “Our Lord! let not Our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us Mercy from you. Truly, You are the Bestower.”
  2. Our Lord!” (They say), “Let not Our hearts deviate Now after Thou hast guided us, but grant us Mercy from Thine own Presence; for Thou art the Grantor of bounties without measure.

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  1. those who say: “Our Lord! we have indeed believed, so forgive us Our sins and save us from the punishment of the Fire.”
  2. (Namely), those who say: “Our Lord! we have indeed believed: forgive us, then, Our sins, and save us from the agony of the Fire.”

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  1. Our Lord! we believe In what You have sent down, and we follow the Messenger [‘Iesa (Jesus)]; so write us down among those who bear witness (to the Truth i.e. Lâ ilâha ill-Allâh – none has the Right to be worshipped but Allâh).
  2. Our Lord! we believe In what Thou hast revealed, and we follow the Messenger. then write us down among those who bear witness.”

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  1. and they said nothing but: “Our Lord! forgive us Our sins and Our transgressions (in keeping Our duties to you), establish Our feet firmly, and give us victory over the disbelieving folk.”
  2. all that They said was: “Our Lord! forgive us Our sins and anything we may have done that transgressed Our duty: establish Our feet firmly, and help us against those that resist faith.”

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  1. Our Lord! Verily, we have heard the call of one (Muhammad) calling to Faith: ‘Believe In Your Lord,’ and we have believed. Our Lord! forgive us Our sins and remit from us Our evil deeds, and make us die In the state of righteousness along with Al-Abrâr (those who are obedient to Allâh and follow strictly his Orders).
  2. Our Lord! we have heard the call of one calling (Us) to Faith, ‘Believe ye In the Lord,’ and we have believed. Our Lord! forgive us Our sins, Blot out from us Our iniquities, and take to Thyself Our souls In the company of the Righteous.

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  1. Our Lord! grant us what You promised unto us through Your Messengers and disgrace us not on the Day of Resurrection, for You never break (your) Promise.”
  2. Our Lord! grant us what Thou Didst promise unto us through Thine apostles, and save us from Shame on the Day of Judgment: for Thou never breakest Thy promise.”

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  1. and when their eyes will be turned towards the dwellers of the Fire, they will say: “Our Lord! place us not with the people who are Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong­doers).”
  2. when their eyes shall be turned towards the companions of the fire, They will say: “Our Lord! send us not to the company of the wrong-doers.”

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  1. “We should have invented a lie against Allâh if we returned to Your religion, after Allâh has rescued us from it. and it is not for us to return to it unless Allâh, Our Lord, should will. Our Lord comprehends All things In his knowledge. In Allâh (Alone) we put Our trust. Our Lord! judge between us and Our people In truth, for You are the best of those who give judgment.”
  2. “We should indeed invent a lie against Allah, if we returned to your ways after Allah hath rescued us therefrom; nor could we by any manner of means return thereto unless it be As In the will and plan of Allah, Our Lord. Our Lord can reach out to the utmost recesses of things by His knowledge. In the Allah is Our trust. Our Lord! decide Thou between us and Our people In truth, for Thou art the best to decide.”

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  1. “And You take vengeance on us Only because we believed In the Ayât (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) of Our Lord when they reached us! Our Lord! Pour out on us patience, and Cause us to die as Muslims.”
  2. “But Thou dost wreak Thy vengeance on us simply because we believed In the Signs of Our Lord when They reached us! Our Lord! pour out on us patience and constancy, and take Our souls unto Thee As Muslims (Who bow to Thy will)!

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  1. they said: “In Allâh we put Our trust. Our Lord! make us not a trial for the folk who are Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doing) (i.e. do not make them overpower us).
  2. They said: “In Allah do we put Our trust. Our Lord! make us not a trial for those who practise oppression.

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  1. O My Lord! make Me one who performs As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and (also) from My Offspring, Our Lord! and Accept My invocation.
  2. O My Lord! make me one who establishes regular prayer, and also (raise such) among My offspring. O Our Lord! and Accept Thou My Prayer.

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  1. Our Lord! forgive Me and My parents, and (all) the believers on the Day when the reckoning will be established.”
  2. O Our Lord! cover (Us) with Thy forgiveness – me, My parents, and (all) believers, on the Day that the reckoning will be established!

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  1. (remember) when the young men fled for Refuge (from their disbelieving folk) to the cave, they said: “Our Lord! bestow on us Mercy from yourself, and facilitate for us Our affair In the Right way!”
  2. Behold, the youths betook themselves to the Cave: said, “Our Lord! bestow on us Mercy from thyself, and dispose of Our affair us In the right way!”

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  1. Verily! there was a party of My slaves, who used to say: “Our Lord! we believe, so forgive us, and have Mercy on us, for You are the best of All who show mercy!”
  2. “A part of My servants there was, who used to pray ‘our Lord! we believe; then do Thou forgive us, and have Mercy upon us: for Thou art the best of those who Show mercy!”

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  1. and those who say: “Our Lord! avert from us the torment of Hell. Verily! its torment is ever an inseparable, permanent punishment.”
  2. those who say, “Our Lord! avert from us the wrath of Hell, for its wrath is indeed an affliction grievous.

tûïÏ%©!$# tbqè=ÏJøts† z¸öyèø9$# ô`tBur ¼çms9öqym tbqßsÎm7|¡ç„ ωôJpt¿2 öNÍkÍh5u‘ tbqãZÏB÷sãƒur ¾ÏmÎ/ tbrãÏÿøótGó¡o„ur tûïÏ%©#Ï9 (#qãZtB#uä $uZ­/u‘ |M÷èřur ¨@à2 &äóÓx« ZpyJôm§‘ $VJù=Ïãur öÏÿøî$$sù tûïÏ%©#Ï9 (#qç/$s? (#qãèt7¨?$#ur y7n=‹Î6y™ öNÎgÏ%ur z>#x‹tã ËLìÅspgø:$# ÇÐÈ

  1. those (angels) who bear the Throne (of Allâh) and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe In him, and ask Forgiveness for those who believe (in the Oneness of Allâh) (saying): “Our Lord! You comprehend All things In Mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who repent and follow Your way, and save them from the torment of the blazing Fire!
  2. those who sustain the Throne (of Allah. and those around it Sing glory and Praise to their Lord; believe In him; and implore forgiveness for those who believe: “Our Lord! Thy reach is over all things, In Mercy and knowledge. Forgive, then, those who turn In repentance, and follow Thy path; and preserve them from the penalty of the Blazing Fire!

$uZ­/§‘ ô#ϱø.$# $¨Zt㠚U#x‹yèø9$# $¯RÎ) tbqãZÏB÷sãB ÇÊËÈ

  1. (They will say): “Our Lord! remove the torment from us, really we shall become believers!”
  2. (They will say:) “Our Lord! remove the penalty from us, for we do really believe!”

šúïÏ%©!$#ur râä!%y` .`ÏB öNÏdω÷èt/ šcqä9qà)tƒ $uZ­/u‘ öÏÿøî$# $oYs9 $oYÏRºuq÷z\}ur šúïÏ%©!$# $tRqà)t7y™ Ç`»yJƒM}$$Î/ Ÿwur ö@yèøgrB ’Îû $uZÎ/qè=è% yxÏî tûïÏ%©#Ïj9 (#qãZtB#uä !$oY­/u‘ y7¨RÎ) Ô$râäu‘ îLìÏm§‘ ÇÊÉÈ

  1. and those who came after them say: “Our Lord! forgive us and Our brethren who have preceded us In Faith, and put not In Our hearts any Hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.
  2. and those who came after them say: “Our Lord! forgive us, and Our brethren who came before us into the Faith, and leave not, In Our hearts, rancour (or sense of injury) against those who have believed. Our Lord! Thou art indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.”

$uZ­/u‘ Ÿw $uZù=yèøgrB ZpuZ÷FÏù tûïÏ%©#Ïj9 (#rãxÿx. öÏÿøî$#ur $uZs9 !$oY­/u‘ ( y7¨RÎ) |MRr& Ⓝ͕yèø9$# ÞOŠÅ3ptø:$# ÇÎÈ

  1. Our Lord! make us not a trial for the disbelievers, and forgive us, Our Lord! Verily, you, Only You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.”
  2. Our Lord! make us not a (test and) trial for the Unbelievers, but forgive us, Our Lord! for Thou art the Exalted In Might, the Wise.”

$pkš‰r’¯»tƒ šúïÏ%©!$# (#qãZtB#uä (#þqç/qè? ’n<Î) «!$# Zpt/öqs? %·nqÝÁ¯R 4Ó|¤tã öNä3š/u‘ br& tÏeÿs3ムöNä3Ytã öNä3Ï?$t«Íh‹y™ öNà6n=Åzô‰ãƒur ;M»¨Zy_ “̍øgrB `ÏB $ygÏFøtrB ㍻yg÷RF{$# tPöqtƒ Ÿw “Ì“øƒä† ª!$# ¢ÓÉ<¨Z9$# z`ƒÏ%©!$#ur (#qãZtB#uä ¼çmyètB ( öNèdâ‘qçR 4Ótëó¡o„ šú÷üt/ öNÍk‰É‰÷ƒr& öNÍkÈ]»yJ÷ƒr’Î/ur tbqä9qà)tƒ !$uZ­/u‘ öNÏJø?r& $uZs9 $tRu‘qçR öÏÿøî$#ur !$uZs9 ( y7¨RÎ) 4’n?tã Èe@à2 &äóÓx« ֍ƒÏ‰s% ÇÑÈ

  1. O You who believe! turn to Allâh with sincere repentance! it may be that Your Lord will remit from You Your sins, and admit You into Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise) the Day that Allâh will not disgrace the Prophet (Muhammad Sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe Wa Sallam) and those who believe with him, their light will run forward before them and with (their records Books of deeds) In their Right hands they will say: “Our Lord! keep perfect Our light for us [and do not put it off till we cross over the Sirât (a slippery bridge over the Hell) safely] and grant us Forgiveness. Verily, You are Able to do All things.”
  2. O ye who believe! turn to Allah with sincere repentance: In the hope that your Lord will remove from you your ills and admit you to Gardens beneath which rivers flow,- the Day that Allah will not permit to be humiliated the prophet and those who believe with Him. their light will run forward before them and by their right hands, while They say, “Our Lord! perfect Our light for us, and grant us forgiveness: for Thou hast power over all things.”

øŒÎ)ur tA$s% ÞO¿Ïdºtö/Î) Éb>u‘ ö@yèô_$# #x‹»yd #µ$s#t/ $YZÏB#uä ø-ã—ö‘$#ur ¼ã&s#÷dr& z`ÏB ÏNºtyJ¨V9$# ô`tB z`tB#uä Nåk÷]ÏB «!$$Î/ ÏQöqu‹ø9$#ur ̍ÅzFy$# ( tA$s% `tBur txÿx. ¼çmãèÏnGtBé’sù Wx‹Î=s% §NèO ÿ¼çn”sÜôÊr& 4’n<Î) É>#x‹tã ͑$¨Z9$# ( }§ø©Î/ur 玍ÅÁyJø9$# ÇÊËÏÈ

  1. and (remember) when Ibrâhim (Abraham) said, “My Lord, make This city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe In Allâh and the Last Day.” He (Allâh) answered: “As for Him who disbelieves, I shall leave Him In contentment for a while, Then I shall compel Him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!”
  2. and remember Abraham said: “My Lord, make This a City of Peace, and feed its people with fruits,-such of them As believe In Allah and the Last Day.” He said: “(Yea), and such As reject Faith,-for a while will I grant them their pleasure, but will soon drive them to the torment of Fire,- an evil destination (indeed)!”

šÏ9$uZèd $tãyŠ $­ƒÌŸ2y— ¼çm­/u‘ ( tA$s% Éb>u‘ ó=yd ’Í< `ÏB šRà$©! Zp­ƒÍh‘èŒ ºpt7Íh‹sÛ ( š¨RÎ) ßì‹Ïÿxœ Ïä!$tã‘$!$# ÇÌÑÈ

  1. at that time Zakariyâ (Zachariya) invoked his Lord, saying: “O My Lord! grant Me from you, a good offspring. You are indeed the All-Hearer of invocation.”
  2. there did Zakariya pray to His Lord, saying: “O My Lord! grant unto me from Thee a progeny that is pure: for Thou art He that heareth prayer!

tA$s% Éb>u‘ öÏÿøî$# ’Í< ÓŁL{ur $oYù=Åz÷Šr&ur †Îû y7ÏGuH÷qu‘ ( |MRr&ur ãNymö‘r& šúüÏH¿qº§9$# ÇÊÎÊÈ

  1. Mûsa (Moses) said: “O My Lord! forgive Me and My brother, and make us enter into Your Mercy, for You are the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.”
  2. Moses prayed: “O My Lord! forgive me and My brother! admit us to Thy mercy! for Thou art the Most Merciful of those who Show mercy!”

tA$s% Éb>u‘ þ’ÎoTÎ) èŒqããr& šÎ/ ÷br& šn=t«ó™r& $tB }§øŠs9 ’Í< ¾ÏmÎ/ ÖNù=Ïã ( žwÎ)ur öÏÿøós? ’Í< ûÓÍ_ôJymös?ur `à2r& z`ÏiB z`ƒÎŽÅ£»y‚ø9$# ÇÍÐÈ

  1. Nûh (Noah) said: “O My Lord! I seek Refuge with You from asking You that of which I have no knowledge. and unless You forgive Me and have Mercy on Me, I would indeed be one of the losers.”
  2. Noah said: “O My Lord! I do seek refuge with thee, Lest I ask Thee for that of which I have no knowledge. and unless Thou forgive me and have Mercy on me, I should indeed be lost!”

øŒÎ)ur tA$s% ãLìÏdºtö/Î) Éb>u‘ ö@yèô_$# #x‹»yd t$s#t6ø9$# $YYÏB#uä ÓÍ_ö7ãYô_$#ur ¢ÓÍ_t/ur br& y‰ç7÷è¯R tP$oYô¹F{$# ÇÌÎÈ

  1. and (remember) when Ibrâhim (Abraham) said: “O My Lord! make This city (Makkah) one of peace and security, and keep Me and My sons away from worshipping idols.
  2. remember Abraham said: “O My Lord! make This City one of peace and security: and preserve me and My sons from worshipping idols.

Éb>u‘ ÓÍ_ù=yèô_$# zOŠÉ)ãB Ío4qn=¢Á9$# `ÏBur ÓÉL­ƒÍh‘èŒ 4 $oY­/u‘ ö@¬6s)s?ur Ïä!$tãߊ ÇÍÉÈ

  1. O My Lord! make Me one who performs As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and (also) from My Offspring, Our Lord! and Accept My invocation.
  2. O My Lord! make me one who establishes regular prayer, and also (raise such) among My offspring O Our Lord! and Accept Thou My Prayer.

ôÙÏÿ÷z$#ur $yJßgs9 yy$uZy_ ÉeA—%!$# z`ÏB ÏpyJôm§9$# @è%ur Éb>§‘ $yJßg÷Hxqö‘$# $yJx. ’ÎT$u‹­/u‘ #ZŽÉó|¹ ÇËÍÈ

  1. and lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through Mercy, and say: “My Lord! bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring Me up when I was small.”
  2. And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: “My Lord! bestow on them Thy Mercy Even As They cherished me In childhood.”

@è%ur Éb>§‘ ÓÍ_ù=Åz÷Šr& Ÿ@yzô‰ãB 5-ô‰Ï¹ ÓÍ_ô_̍÷zr&ur yltøƒèC 5-ô‰Ï¹ @yèô_$#ur ’Ík< `ÏB y7Rà$©! $YZ»sÜù=ߙ #ZŽÅÁ¯R ÇÑÉÈ

  1. and Say (O Muhammad ): My Lord! let My entry (to the city of Al-Madinah) be good, and likewise My exit (from the city of Makkah) be good. and grant Me from You an authority to help Me (or a firm sign or a proof).
  2. say: “O My Lord! let My entry be by the gate of truth and Honour, and likewise My exit by the gate of truth and Honour; and grant me from Thy presence an authority to aid (me).”

tA$s% Éb>u‘ ÷yuŽõ°$# ’Í< “Í‘ô‰|¹ ÇËÎÈ

  1. [Mûsa (Moses)] said: “O My Lord! open for Me My chest (grant Me self-confidence, contentment, and boldness).
  2. (Moses) said: “O My Lord! expand me My breast (i.e open up the horizons of knowledge for me.- Note that this illumination is contributed by the compiler of these invocations).

’n?»yètGsù ª!$# à7Î=yJø9$# ‘,ysø9$# 3 Ÿwur ö@yf÷ès? Èb#uäöà)ø9$$Î/ `ÏB È@ö6s% br& #Ó|Óø)ムšø‹s9Î) ¼çmã‹ômur ( @è%ur Éb>§‘ ’ÎT÷ŠÎ— $VJù=Ïã ÇÊÊÍÈ

  1. Then High above All be Allâh, the true King. and be not In haste (O Muhammad ) with the Qur’ân before its Revelation is completed to you, and say: “My Lord! increase Me In knowledge.”
  2. high above all is Allah, the king, the truth! be not In haste with the Qur’an before its Revelation to Thee is completed, but say, “O My Lord! advance me In knowledge.”

!$­ƒÌŸ2y—ur øŒÎ) 2”yŠ$tR ¼çm­/u‘ Éb>u‘ Ÿw ’ÎTö‘x‹s? #YŠösù |MRr&ur çŽöyz šúüÏO͑ºuqø9$# ÇÑÒÈ

  1. and (remember) Zakariya (Zachariah), when He cried to his Lord: “O My Lord! leave Me not single (childless), though You are the best of the inheritors.”
  2. and (remember) Zakariya, when He cried to His Lord: “O My Lord! leave me not without offspring, though Thou art the best of inheritors.”

Ÿ@»s% Éb>u‘ /ä3÷n$# Èd,ptø:$$Î/ 3 $uZš/u‘ur ß`»oH÷q§9$# ãb$yètGó¡ßJø9$# 4’n?tã $tB tbqàÿÅÁs? ÇÊÊËÈ

  1. He (Muhammad) said:”My Lord! judge You In truth! Our Lord is the Most Beneficent, whose help is to be sought against that which You attribute (unto Allâh that He has Offspring, and unto Muhammad that He is a sorcerer, and unto the Qur’ân that it is poetry, etc.)!”
  2. say: “O My Lord! judge Thou In truth!” “Our Lord Most gracious is the one whose assistance should be sought against the blasphemies ye utter!”

tA$s% Éb>u‘ ’ÎT÷ŽÝÇS$# $yJÎ/ Èbqç/¤‹Ÿ2 ÇËÏÈ

  1. [Nûh (Noah)] said: “O My Lord! help Me because they deny me.”
  2. (Noah) said: “O My Lord! help Me: for that They accuse me of falsehood!”

@è%ur Éb>§‘ ÓÍ_ø9̓Rr& Zwu”\ãB %Z.u‘$t7•B |MRr&ur çŽöyz tû,Î!͔\ßJø9$# ÇËÒÈ

  1. and say: “My Lord! Cause Me to land at a blessed landing-place, for You are the best of those who bring to land.”
  2. and say: “O My Lord! enable me to disembark with Thy blessing: for Thou art the best to enable (Us) to disembark.”

Éb>u‘ Ÿxsù ÓÍ_ù=yèøgrB †Îû ÏQöqs)ø9$# tûüÏJÎ=»©à9$# ÇÒÍÈ

  1. My Lord! Then (save Me from Your punishment), and put Me not amongst the people who are the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doing).”
  2. “Then, O My Lord! put me not amongst the people who do wrong!”

@è%ur Éb>§‘ èŒqããr& y7Î/ ô`ÏB ÏNºt“yJyd ÈûüÏÜ»u‹¤±9$# ÇÒÐÈ

  1. and say: “My Lord! I seek Refuge with You from the whisperings (suggestions) of the Shayâtin (devils).
  2. and say “O My Lord! I seek refuge with Thee from the suggestions of the evil ones.

èŒqããr&ur šÎ/ Éb>u‘ br& ÈbrçŽÛØøts† ÇÒÑÈ

  1. “And I seek Refuge with you, My Lord! lest they may attend (or come near) me.”
  2. “And I seek refuge with Thee O My Lord! Lest They should come near me.”

@è%ur Éb>§‘ öÏÿøî$# óOymö‘$#ur |MRr&ur çŽöyz tûüÏH¿qº§9$# ÇÊÊÑÈ

  1. and Say (O Muhammad ): “My Lord! forgive and have Mercy, for You are the best of those who show mercy!”
  2. so say: “O My Lord! grant Thou forgiveness and Mercy for Thou art the best of those who Show mercy!”

Éb>u‘ ó=yd ’Í< $VJò6ãm ÓÍ_ø)Åsø9r&ur šúüÅsÎ=»¢Á9$$Î/ ÇÑÌÈ

  1. My Lord! bestow Hukman (religious knowledge, Right judgement of the affairs and Prophethood) on Me, and join Me with the righteous.
  2. O My Lord! bestow wisdom on me, and join me with the righteous.

Éb>u‘ ÓÍ_ÅngwU ’Í?÷dr&ur $£JÏB tbqè=yJ÷ètƒ ÇÊÏÒÈ

  1. My Lord! save Me and My family from what they do.”
  2. O My Lord! deliver me and My family from such things As They do!”

zO¡¡t6tGsù %Z3Ïm$|Ê `ÏiB $ygÏ9öqs% tA$s%ur Éb>u‘ ûÓÍ_ôãΗ÷rr& ÷br& tä3ô©r& štFyJ÷èÏR ûÓÉL©9$# |MôJyè÷Rr& ¥’n?tã 4’n?tãur ž”t$Î!ºur ÷br&ur Ÿ@uHùår& $[sÎ=»|¹ çm8|Êös? ÓÍ_ù=Åz÷Šr&ur y7ÏGpHôqtÎ/ ’Îû x8ϊ$t7Ï㠚úüÅsÎ=»¢Á9$# ÇÊÒÈ

  1. so He [Sulaimân (Solomon)] smiled, amused at her speech and said: “My Lord! inspire and bestow upon Me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favours which You have bestowed on Me and on My parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please you, and admit Me by Your Mercy among Your righteous slaves.”
  2. so He smiled, amused at Her speech; and He said: “O My Lord! so order me that I may be grateful for Thy favours, which Thou hast bestowed on me and on My parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please thee: and admit me, by Thy Grace, to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants.”

tA$s% Éb>u‘ ’ÎoTÎ) àMôJn=sß ÓŤøÿtR öÏÿøî$$sù ’Í< txÿtósù ÿ¼ã&s! 4 ¼çm¯RÎ) uqèd â‘qàÿtóø9$# ÞOŠÏm§9$# ÇÊÏÈ

  1. He said: “My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, so forgive me.” Then He forgave Him. Verily, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.
  2. He prayed: “O My Lord! I have indeed wronged My soul! do Thou then forgive me!” so ((Allah)) forgave him: for He is the Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

tA$s% Éb>u‘ !$yJÎ/ |MôJyè÷Rr& ¥’n?tã ô`n=sù šcqä.r& #ZŽÎgsß tûüÏB̍ôfßJù=Ïj9 ÇÊÐÈ

  1. He said: “My Lord! for that with which You have favoured Me, I will never more be a Helper for the Mujrimûn (criminals, disobedient to Allâh, polytheists, sinners, etc.)!”
  2. He said: “O My Lord! for that Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace on me, never shall I be a help to those who sin!”

yltsƒmú $pk÷]ÏB $Zÿͬ!%s{ Ü=©%uŽtItƒ ( tA$s% Éb>u‘ ÓÍ_ÅngwU z`ÏB ÏQöqs)ø9$# tûüÏJÎ=»©à9$# ÇËÊÈ

  1. so He escaped from there, looking about In a state of fear. He said: “My Lord! save Me from the people who are Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers)!”
  2. He Therefore got away therefrom, looking about, In a state of fear. He prayed “O My Lord! save me from people given to wrong-doing.”

tA$s% Å_Uu‘ ’ÎT÷ŽÝÇR$# ’n?tã ÏQöqs)ø9$# šúïωšøÿßJø9$# ÇÌÉÈ

  1. He said: “My Lord! give Me victory over the people who are Mufsidûn (those who commit great crimes and sins, oppressors, tyrants, mischief-makers, corrupts).
  2. He said: “O My Lord! help Thou me against people who do mischief!”

Éb>u‘ ó=yd ’Í< z`ÏB tûüÅsÎ=»¢Á9$# ÇÊÉÉÈ

  1. My Lord! grant Me (offspring) from the righteous.”
  2. O My Lord! grant me a righteous (son)!”

$uZøŠ¢¹urur z`»|¡SM}$# Ïm÷ƒy‰Ï9ºuqÎ/ $·Z»|¡ômÎ) ( çm÷Fn=uHxq ¼çm•Bé& $\döä. çm÷Gyè|Êurur $\döä. ( ¼çmè=÷Hxqur ¼çmè=»|ÁÏùur tbqèW»n=rO #·öky­ 4 #Ó¨Lym #sŒÎ) x÷n=t/ ¼çn£‰ä©r& x÷n=t/ur z`ŠÏèt/ö‘r& ZpuZy™ tA$s% Éb>u‘ ûÓÍ_ôãΗ÷rr& ÷br& tä3ô©r& y7tFyJ÷èÏR ûÓÉL©9$# |MôJyè÷Rr& ¥’n?tã 4’n?tãur £“t$Î!ºur ÷br&ur Ÿ@uHùår& $[sÎ=»|¹ çm9|Êös? ôxÎ=ô¹r&ur ’Í< ’Îû ûÓÉL­ƒÍh‘èŒ ( ’ÎoTÎ) àMö6è? y7ø‹s9Î) ’ÎoTÎ)ur z`ÏB tûüÏHÍ>ó¡ßJø9$# ÇÊÎÈ

  1. and we have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. his mother bears Him with hardship and she brings Him forth with hardship, and the bearing of him, and the weaning of Him is thirty (30) months, till when He attains full strength and reaches forty years, He says: “My Lord! grant Me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favour which You have bestowed upon Me and upon My parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please you, and make My off-spring good. Truly, I have turned to You In repentance, and Truly, I am one of the Muslims (submitting to Your Will).”
  2. we have enjoined on man kindness to His parents: In pain did His mother bear him, and In pain did she give Him birth. the carrying of the (child) to His weaning is (A period of) thirty months. at length, when He reaches the age of full strength and attains forty years, He says, “O My Lord! grant me that I may be grateful for Thy favour which Thou has bestowed upon me, and upon both My parents, and that I may work righteousness such As Thou mayest approve; and be gracious to me In My issue. truly have I turned to Thee and truly do I bow (to thee) In Islam.”

šUuŽŸÑur ª!$# WxsVtB šúïÏ%©#Ïj9 (#qãZtB#uä |Nr&tøB$# šcöqtãöÏù øŒÎ) ôMs9$s% Éb>u‘ Èûøó$# ’Í< x8y‰YÏã $\F÷t/ ’Îû Ïp¨Yyfø9$# ÓÍ_ÅngwUur `ÏB šcöqtãöÏù ¾Ï&Î#yJtãur ÓÍ_ÅngwUur šÆÏB ÏQöqs)ø9$# šúüÏJÎ=»©à9$# ÇÊÊÈ

  1. and Allâh has set forth an example for those who believe, the wife of Fir’aun (Pharaoh), when she said: “My Lord! build for Me a home with You In Paradise, and save Me from Fir’aun (Pharaoh) and his work, and save Me from the people who are Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong-doers and disbelievers In Allâh).
  2. and Allah sets forth, As an example to those who believe the wife of Pharaoh: behold she said: “O My Lord! build for me, In nearness to thee, a mansion In the garden, and save me from Pharaoh and His doings, and save me from those that do wrong”.

tA$s%ur ÓyqçR Éb>§‘ Ÿw ö‘x‹s? ’n?tã ÇÚö‘F{$# z`ÏB tûï͍Ïÿ»s3ø9$# #·‘$­ƒyŠ ÇËÏÈ

  1. and Nûh (Noah) said: “My Lord! leave not one of the disbelievers on the earth!
  2. and Noah, said: “O My Lord! leave not of the Unbelievers, a single one on earth!

Éb>§‘ öÏÿøî$# ’Í< £“t$Î!ºuqÏ9ur `yJÏ9ur Ÿ@yzyŠ š_ÉLøŠt/ $YZÏB÷sãB tûüÏZÏB÷sßJù=Ï9ur ÏM»oYÏB÷sßJø9$#ur Ÿwur ϊ̓s? tûüÏHÍ>»©à9$# žwÎ) #I‘$t7s? ÇËÑÈ

  1. “My Lord! forgive Me, and My parents, and Him who enters My home as a believer, and All the believing men and women. and to the Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong-doers, and disbelievers, etc.) grant You no increase but destruction!”
  2. “O My Lord! forgive me, My parents, all who enter My House In Faith, and (all) believing men and believing women: and to the wrong-doers grant Thou no increase but In perdition!”

Below are some Prophetic supplications that are recommended for Muslims at some selected special occasions:

1- Every morning

– أَصْـبَحْنا وَأَصْـبَحَ المُـلْكُ لله وَالحَمدُ لله ، لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وَحدَهُ لا شَريكَ لهُ، لهُ المُـلكُ ولهُ الحَمْـد، وهُوَ على كلّ شَيءٍ قدير ، رَبِّ أسْـأَلُـكَ خَـيرَ ما في هـذا اليوم وَخَـيرَ ما بَعْـدَه ، وَأَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَـرِّ هـذا اليوم وَشَرِّ ما بَعْـدَه، رَبِّ أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنَ الْكَسَـلِ وَسـوءِ الْكِـبَر ، رَبِّ أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنْ عَـذابٍ في النّـارِ وَعَـذابٍ في القَـبْر.   [مسلم 4/2088]
Asbahnâ wa-asbahal-mulku lillâh walhamdu lillâh la ilâha illal-lâh, wahdahu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa calâ kulli shaeyin qadeer, rabbi as-aluka khayra mâ fee hâdha-alyawm, wakhaeyra mâ bacdahu, wa-acoodhu bika min sharri hadha-alyaowm, washarri mâ bacdahu, rabbi acoodhu bika minal-kasal, wasuu-il kibar, rabbi acoodhu bika min cadhâbin fin-nâr, wacadhâbin fil-qabr.
‘We have reached the morning and at this very time unto Allah belongs all sovereignty, and all praise is for Allah. None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise and He is over all things omnipotent. My Lord, I ask You for the good of this day and the good of what follows it and I take refuge in You from the evil of this day and the evil of what follows it. My Lord, I take refuge in You from laziness and senility. My Lord, I take refuge in You from torment in the Fire and punishment in the grave.’
2- اللّهُـمَّ بِكَ أَصْـبَحْنا وَبِكَ أَمْسَـينا ، وَبِكَ نَحْـيا وَبِكَ نَمُـوتُ وَإِلَـيْكَ النُّـشُور.    [الترمذي 5/466]
Allâhumma bika asbahnâ wabika amsaeynâ, wabika nahyâ ,wabika namoot, wa-ilaeykan-nushuur.
‘O Allah, by your leave we have reached the morning and by Your leave we have reached the evening, by Your leave we live and die and unto You is our resurrection.’
3- اللّهـمَّ أَنْتَ رَبِّـي لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْتَ ، خَلَقْتَنـي وَأَنا عَبْـدُك ، وَأَنا عَلـى عَهْـدِكَ وَوَعْـدِكَ ما اسْتَـطَعْـت ، أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنْ شَـرِّ ما صَنَـعْت ، أَبـوءُ لَـكَ بِنِعْـمَتِـكَ عَلَـيَّ وَأَبـوءُ بِذَنْـبي فَاغْفـِرْ لي فَإِنَّـهُ لا يَغْـفِرُ الذُّنـوبَ إِلاّ أَنْتَ .    [البخاري 7/150]
Allâhumma anta rabbee lâ ilâha illâ ant, khalaqtanee wa-anâ cabduk, wa-anâ cala ahdika wawacdika mas-tatact, acoodhu bika min sharri mâ sanact, abuu-u laka binicmatika alayy, wa-abuu-u bidhanbee, faghfir-lee fa-innahu lâ yaghfiru dh-dhunuuba illâ ant.
‘O Allah, You are my Lord, none has the right to be worshipped except You, You created me and I am Your servant and I abide to Your covenant and promise as best I can, I take refuge in You from the evil of which I have committed. I acknowledge Your favour upon me and I acknowledge my sin, so forgive me, for verily none can forgive sin except You.’
4- اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أَصْبَـحْتُ أَُشْـهِدُك ، وَأُشْـهِدُ حَمَلَـةَ عَـرْشِـك ، وَمَلائِكَتِك ، وَجَمـيعَ خَلْـقِك ، أَنَّـكَ أَنْـتَ اللهُ لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ وَحْـدَكَ لا شَريكَ لَـك ، وَأَنَّ ُ مُحَمّـداً عَبْـدُكَ وَرَسـولُـك .(أربع مرات )    [أبو داود 4/317]
Allâhumma innee asbah-t ush-hiduk, wa-ushhid hamalata carshik, wamalâ-ikatak, wajameeci  khalqik, annaka antal-lâhu lâ ilâha illâ ant, wah-daka lâ shareeka lak, wa-anna Muhammadan cabduka warasuuluk (four times).
‘O Allah, verily I have reached the morning and call on You, the bearers of Your throne, Your angles, and all of Your creation to witness that You are Allah, none has the right to be worshipped except You, alone, without partner and that Muhammad is Your Servant and Messenger.’ (four times).
5- اللّهُـمَّ ما أَصْبَـَحَ بي مِـنْ نِعْـمَةٍ أَو بِأَحَـدٍ مِـنْ خَلْـقِك ، فَمِـنْكَ وَحْـدَكَ لا شريكَ لَـك ، فَلَـكَ الْحَمْـدُ وَلَـكَ الشُّكْـر .   [أبو داود 4/318]
Allâhumma mâ asbaha bee min nicmatin, aw bi-ahadin min khalqik, faminka wahdaka lâ shareeka lak, falakal-hamdu walakash-shukr.
‘O Allah, what blessing I or any of Your creation have risen upon, is from You alone, without partner, so for You is all praise and unto You all thanks.’
6- اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في بَدَنـي ، اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في سَمْـعي ، اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في بَصَـري ، لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ . (ثلاثاً)
اللّهُـمَّ إِنّـي أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْكُـفر ، وَالفَـقْر ، وَأَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنْ عَذابِ القَـبْر ، لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/324]
Allâhumma câfinee fee badanee, allâhumma cafinee fee samcee, allâhumma cafinee fee basaree, lâ ilâha illâ ant.(three times).
Allâhumma innee acoodhu bika minal-kufr walfaqr, wa-acoodhu bika min cadhâbil-qabr, lâ ilâha illâ ant (three times).
‘O Allah, grant my body health, O Allah, grant my hearing health, O Allah, grant my sight health. None has the right to be worshipped except You.’ (three times)
‘O Allah, I take refuge with You from disbelief and poverty, and I take refuge with You from the punishment of the grave. None has the right to be worshipped except You.’ (three times)
7- حَسْبِـيَ اللّهُ لا إلهَ إلاّ هُوَ عَلَـيهِ تَوَكَّـلتُ وَهُوَ رَبُّ العَرْشِ العَظـيم . ( سبع مَرّات حينَ يصْبِح وَيمسي)    [أبو داود موقوفاً 4/321]
Hasbiyal-lâhu lâ ilâha illâ huwa, calayhi tawakkalt, wahuwa rabbul-carshil-cdheem
‘Allah is Sufficient for me, none has the right to be worshipped except Him, upon Him I rely and He is Lord of the exalted throne.’ (seven times morning and evening)
8- أَعـوذُ بِكَلِمـاتِ اللّهِ التّـامّـاتِ مِنْ شَـرِّ ما خَلَـق . (ثلاثاً إِذا أمسى)    [أحمد 2/290، وصحيح الترمذي 3/187]
acuudhu bikalimâtil-lahit-tammâti min sharri mâ khalaq.
‘I take refuge in Allah’s perfect words from the evil He has created.’ (three times in the evening)
9- اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ العَـفْوَ وَالعـافِـيةَ في الدُّنْـيا وَالآخِـرَة ، اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ العَـفْوَ وَالعـافِـيةَ في ديني وَدُنْـيايَ وَأهْـلي وَمالـي ، اللّهُـمَّ اسْتُـرْ عـوْراتي وَآمِـنْ رَوْعاتـي ، اللّهُـمَّ احْفَظْـني مِن بَـينِ يَدَيَّ وَمِن خَلْفـي وَعَن يَمـيني وَعَن شِمـالي ، وَمِن فَوْقـي ، وَأَعـوذُ بِعَظَمَـتِكَ أَن أُغْـتالَ مِن تَحْتـي .    [صحيح ابن ماجه 2/332]
Allâhumma innee as-alukal-cafwa walcâfiyah, fid-dunyâ wal-âkhirah, allâhumma innee as-alukal-cafwa walcâfiyah fee deenee, wadunyâya wa-ahlee, wamâlee, allâhummas-tur caowrâtee, wa-âmin cawrâtee, allâhummafadhnee min baeyni yadayya, wamin khalfee, wacan yameenee, wacan shimâlee, wamin faowqee, wa-acoodhu bicadhamatika an ughtâla min tahtee.
‘O Allah, I ask You for pardon and well-being in this life and the next. O Allah, I ask You for pardon and well-being in my religious and worldly affairs, and my family and my wealth. O Allah, veil my weaknesses and set at ease my dismay. O Allah, preserve me from the front and from behind and on my right and on my left and from above, and I take refuge with You lest I be swallowed up by the earth.’
10- اللّهُـمَّ عالِـمَ الغَـيْبِ وَالشّـهادَةِ فاطِـرَ السّماواتِ وَالأرْضِ رَبَّ كـلِّ شَـيءٍ وَمَليـكَه ، أَشْهَـدُ أَنْ لا إِلـهَ إِلاّ أَنْت ، أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِن شَـرِّ نَفْسـي وَمِن شَـرِّ الشَّيْـطانِ وَشِـرْكِه ، وَأَنْ أَقْتَـرِفَ عَلـى نَفْسـي سوءاً أَوْ أَجُـرَّهُ إِلـى مُسْـلِم.    [صحيح الترمذي 3/142]
Allâhumma calimal-ghaeybi wash-shahâdah, fâtiras-samâwati wal-ard, rabba kulli shaeyin wamaleekah, ash-hadu an lâ ilâha illâ ant, acuudhu bika min sharri nafsee wamin sharrish-shaeytâni washi-rkih, wa-an aqtarifa calâ nafsee suu-an aow ajurrahu ilâ muslim.
‘O Allah, Knower of the unseen and the seen, Creator of the heavens and the Earth, Lord and Sovereign of all things, I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except You. I take refuge in You from the evil of my soul and from the evil and shirk of the devil, and from committing wrong against my soul or bringing such upon another Muslim.’
11- بِسـمِ اللهِ الذي لا يَضُـرُّ مَعَ اسمِـهِ شَيءٌ في الأرْضِ وَلا في السّمـاءِ وَهـوَ السّمـيعُ العَلـيم . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/323]
Bismil-lâhil-ladhee lâ yadurru macas-mihii shaey-un fil-ardi walâ fis-samâ-i wahuwas-sameecul-caleem.
‘In the name of Allah with whose name nothing is harmed on earth nor in the heavens and He is The All-Seeing, The All-Knowing.’(three times)
12- رَضيـتُ بِاللهِ رَبَّـاً وَبِالإسْلامِ ديـناً وَبِمُحَـمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَبِيّـاً . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/318]
Radeetu billâhi rabban wabil-islâm deenan wabiMuhammadin (nnpeace be upon to him) nabiyyan.
‘I am pleased with Allah as a Lord, and Islam as a religion and Muhammad peace be upon to him as a Prophet.’(three times
13- سُبْحـانَ اللهِ وَبِحَمْـدِهِ عَدَدَ خَلْـقِه ، وَرِضـا نَفْسِـه ، وَزِنَـةَ عَـرْشِـه ، وَمِـدادَ كَلِمـاتِـه . (ثلاثاً)    [مسلم 4/2090]
Subhânal-lâhi wabihamdih, cadada khalqihi waridâ nafsih, wazinata carshih, wamidâda kalimâtih.
‘How perfect Allah is and I praise Him by the number of His creation and His pleasure, and by the weight of His throne, and the ink of His words.’(three times)
14- سُبْحـانَ اللهِ وَبِحَمْـدِهِ . (مائة مرة)    [مسلم 4/2071]
Subhânal-lâh wabihamdih.
‘How perfect Allah is and I praise Him.’(one hundred times)
15- يا حَـيُّ يا قَيّـومُ بِـرَحْمَـتِكِ أَسْتَـغـيث ، أَصْلِـحْ لي شَـأْنـي كُلَّـه ، وَلا تَكِلـني إِلى نَفْـسي طَـرْفَةَ عَـين .    [صحيح الترغيب والترهيب 1/273]
Yâ hayyu yâ Qayyuum, birahmatika astagheeth, aslih lee sha’nee kullah, walâ takilnee ilâ nafsee tarfata cayn.
‘O Ever Living, O Self-Subsisting and Supporter of all, by Your mercy I seek assistance, rectify for me all of my affairs and do not leave me to myself, even for the blink of an eye.’
16- لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وحْـدَهُ لا شَـريكَ لهُ، لهُ المُـلْكُ ولهُ الحَمْـد، وهُوَ على كُلّ شَيءٍ قَدير . (مائة مرة)    [البخاري 4/95 ومسلم 4/2071]
La ilâha illal-lâh, wahdahuu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa cala kulli shaey-in qadeer.
‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise, and He is over all things omnipotent.’ (one hundred times)
17- أَصْبَـحْـنا وَأَصْبَـحْ المُـلكُ للهِ رَبِّ العـالَمـين ، اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ خَـيْرَ هـذا الـيَوْم ، فَـتْحَهُ ، وَنَصْـرَهُ ، وَنـورَهُ وَبَـرَكَتَـهُ ، وَهُـداهُ ، وَأَعـوذُ بِـكَ مِـنْ شَـرِّ ما فـيهِ وَشَـرِّ ما بَعْـدَه .    [أبو داود 4/322]
Asbahnâ wa-asbahal-mulku lillâh rabbil-calameen, allâhumma innee as-aluka khaeyra hadhal-yaowm, fat-hahu, wanasrahu, wanuurahu, wabarakatahu, wahudâhu, wa-acoodhu bika min sharri mâ feehi, washarri mâ bacdah.
‘We have reached the morning and at this very time all sovereignty belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds. O Allah, I ask You for the good of this day, its triumphs and its victories, its light and its blessings and its guidance, and I take refuge in You from the evil of this day and the evil that follows it.’
  1. Every evening
أَمْسَيْـنا وَأَمْسـى المـلكُ لله وَالحَمدُ لله ، لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وَحدَهُ لا شَريكَ لهُ، لهُ المُـلكُ ولهُ الحَمْـد، وهُوَ على كلّ شَيءٍ قدير ، رَبِّ أسْـأَلُـكَ خَـيرَ ما في هـذهِ اللَّـيْلَةِ وَخَـيرَ ما بَعْـدَهـا ، وَأَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَـرِّ هـذهِ اللَّـيْلةِ وَشَرِّ ما بَعْـدَهـا ، رَبِّ أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنَ الْكَسَـلِ وَسـوءِ الْكِـبَر ، رَبِّ أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنْ عَـذابٍ في النّـارِ وَعَـذابٍ في القَـبْر .   [مسلم 4/2088]
Amsaynâ wa-amsal-mulku lillâh walhamdu lillâh lâ ilâha illal-lâh, wahdahu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa cala kulli shaeyin qadeer, rabbi as-aluka khaeyra mâ fee hadhihil-laeylah, wakhaeyra mâ bacdahâ, wa-acuudhu bika min sharri hâdhihil-laeylah, washarri ma bacdahâ, rabbi acdhu bika minal-kasal, wasuu-il kibar, rabbi acdhu bika min cadhâbin fin-nâr, wacdhâbin fil-qabr.
‘We have reached the evening and at this very time unto Allah belongs all sovereignty, and all praise is for Allah. None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise and He is over all things omnipotent. My Lord, I ask You for the good of this night and the good of what follows it and I take refuge in You from the evil of this night and the evil of what follows it. My Lord, I take refuge in You from laziness and senility. My Lord, I take refuge in You from torment in the Fire and punishment in the grave.’
2- اللّهُـمَّ بِكَ أَمْسَـينا، وَبِكَ أَصْـبَحْنا، وَبِكَ نَحْـيا، وَبِكَ نَمـوتُ وَإِلَـيْكَ المَصـير .    [الترمذي 5/466]
Allâhumma bika amsaeynâ, wabika asbah-nâ, wabika nahyâ wabika namuut, wa-ilaeykal-maseer.
‘O Allah, by Your leave we have reached the evening and by Your leave we have reached the morning, by Your leave we live and die and unto You is our return.’
3- اللّهـمَّ أَنْتَ رَبِّـي لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْتَ ، خَلَقْتَنـي وَأَنا عَبْـدُك ، وَأَنا عَلـى عَهْـدِكَ وَوَعْـدِكَ ما اسْتَـطَعْـت ، أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَـرِّ ما صَنَـعْت ، أَبـوءُ لَـكَ بِنِعْـمَتِـكَ عَلَـيَّ وَأَبـوءُ بِذَنْـبي فَاغْفـِرْ لي فَإِنَّـهُ لا يَغْـفِرُ الذُّنـوبَ إِلاّ أَنْتَ .    [البخاري 7/150]
Allâhumma anta rabbee lâ ilâha illâ ant, khalaqtanee wa-anâ cabduk, wa-anâ cala ahdika wawacdika mas-tatact, acoodhu bika min sharri mâ sanact, abuu-u laka binicmatika alayy, wa-abuu-u bidhanbee, faghfir-lee fa-innahu lâ yaghfiru dh-dhunuuba illâ ant.
‘O Allah, You are my Lord, none has the right to be worshipped except You, You created me and I am Your servant and I abide to Your covenant and promise as best I can, I take refuge in You from the evil of which I have committed. I acknowledge Your favour upon me and I acknowledge my sin, so forgive me, for verily none can forgive sin except You.’
4- اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أَمسيتُ أَُشْـهِدُك ، وَأُشْـهِدُ حَمَلَـةَ عَـرْشِـك ، وَمَلائِكَتِك ، وَجَمـيعَ خَلْـقِك ، أَنَّـكَ أَنْـتَ اللهُ لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ وَحْـدَكَ لا شَريكَ لَـك ، وَأَنَّ ُ مُحَمّـداً عَبْـدُكَ وَرَسـولُـك .(أربع مرات)    [أبو داود 4/317]
Allâhumma innee amsaeyt, ush-hiduk, wa-ushhid hamalata carshik, wamalâ-ikatak, wajameeci  khalqik, annaka antal-lâhu lâ ilâha illâ ant, wah-daka lâ shareeka lak, wa-anna Muhammadan cabduka warasuuluk (four times).
‘O Allah, verily I have reached the evening and call on You, the bearers of Your throne, Your angles, and all of Your creation to witness that You are Allah, none has the right to be worshipped except You, alone, without partner and that Muhammad is Your Servant and Messenger.’ (four times.)
5- اللّهُـمَّ ما أَمسى بي مِـنْ نِعْـمَةٍ أَو بِأَحَـدٍ مِـنْ خَلْـقِك ، فَمِـنْكَ وَحْـدَكَ لا شريكَ لَـك ، فَلَـكَ الْحَمْـدُ وَلَـكَ الشُّكْـر .   [أبو داود 4/318]
Allâhumma mâ amsâ bee min nicmatin, aw bi-ahadin min khalqik, faminka wahdaka lâ shareeka lak, falakal-hamdu walakash-shukr.
‘O Allah, what blessing I or any of Your creation have risen upon, is from You alone, without partner, so for You is all praise and unto You all thanks.’
6- اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في بَدَنـي ، اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في سَمْـعي ، اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في بَصَـري ، لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ .
اللّهُـمَّ إِنّـي أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْكُـفر ، وَالفَـقْر ، وَأَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنْ عَذابِ القَـبْر ، لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/324]
Allâhumma câfinee fee badanee, allâhumma cafinee fee samcee, allâhumma cafinee fee basaree, lâ ilâha illâ ant.(three times).
Allâhumma innee acoodhu bika minal-kufr walfaqr, wa-acoodhu bika min cadhâbil-qabr, lâ ilâha illâ ant (three times).
‘O Allah, grant my body health, O Allah, grant my hearing health, O Allah, grant my sight health. None has the right to be worshipped except You.’
‘O Allah, I take refuge with You from disbelief and poverty, and I take refuge with You from the punishment of the grave. None has the right to be worshipped except You.’ (three times)
7- حَسْبِـيَ اللّهُ لا إلهَ إلاّ هُوَ عَلَـيهِ تَوَكَّـلتُ وَهُوَ رَبُّ العَرْشِ العَظـيم . ( سبع مَرّات حينَ يصْبِح وَيمسي)    [أبو داود موقوفاً 4/321]
Hasbiyal-lâhu lâ ilâha illâ huwa, calayhi tawakkalt, wahuwa rabbul-carshil-cdheem
‘Allah is Sufficient for me, none has the right to be worshipped except Him, upon Him I rely and He is Lord of the exalted throne.’ (seven times morning and evening)
8- أَعـوذُ بِكَلِمـاتِ اللّهِ التّـامّـاتِ مِنْ شَـرِّ ما خَلَـق . (ثلاثاً إِذا أمسى)    [أحمد 2/290، وصحيح الترمذي 3/187]
Acuudhu bikalimâtil-lahit-tammâti min sharri mâ khalaq.
‘I take refuge in Allah’s perfect words from the evil He has created.’ (three times in the evening)
9- اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ العَـفْوَ وَالعـافِـيةَ في الدُّنْـيا وَالآخِـرَة ، اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ العَـفْوَ وَالعـافِـيةَ في ديني وَدُنْـيايَ وَأهْـلي وَمالـي ، اللّهُـمَّ اسْتُـرْ عـوْراتي وَآمِـنْ رَوْعاتـي ، اللّهُـمَّ احْفَظْـني مِن بَـينِ يَدَيَّ وَمِن خَلْفـي وَعَن يَمـيني وَعَن شِمـالي ، وَمِن فَوْقـي ، وَأَعـوذُ بِعَظَمَـتِكَ أَن أُغْـتالَ مِن تَحْتـي .    [صحيح ابن ماجه 2/332]
Allâhumma innee as-alukal-cafwa walcâfiyah, fid-dunyâ wal-âkhirah, allâhumma innee as-alukal-cafwa walcâfiyah fee deenee, wadunyâya wa-ahlee, wamâlee, allâhummas-tur caowrâtee, wa-âmin cawrâtee, allâhummafadhnee min baeyni yadayya, wamin khalfee, wacan yameenee, wacan shimâlee, wamin faowqee, wa-acoodhu bicadhamatika an ughtâla min tahtee.
‘O Allah, I ask You for pardon and well-being in this life and the next. O Allah, I ask You for pardon and well-being in my religious and worldly affairs, and my family and my wealth. O Allah, veil my weaknesses and set at ease my dismay. O Allah, preserve me from the front and from behind and on my right and on my left and from above, and I take refuge with You lest I be swallowed up by the earth.’
10- اللّهُـمَّ عالِـمَ الغَـيْبِ وَالشّـهادَةِ فاطِـرَ السّماواتِ وَالأرْضِ رَبَّ كـلِّ شَـيءٍ وَمَليـكَه ، أَشْهَـدُ أَنْ لا إِلـهَ إِلاّ أَنْت ، أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِن شَـرِّ نَفْسـي وَمِن شَـرِّ الشَّيْـطانِ وَشِـرْكِه ، وَأَنْ أَقْتَـرِفَ عَلـى نَفْسـي سوءاً أَوْ أَجُـرَّهُ إِلـى مُسْـلِم.    [صحيح الترمذي 3/142]
Allâhumma calimal-ghaeybi wash-shahâdah, fâtiras-samâwati wal-ard, rabba kulli shaeyin wamaleekah, ash-hadu an lâ ilâha illâ ant, acuudhu bika min sharri nafsee wamin sharrish-shaeytâni washi-rkih, wa-an aqtarifa calâ nafsee suu-an aow ajurrahu ilâ muslim.
‘O Allah, Knower of the unseen and the seen, Creator of the heavens and the Earth, Lord and Sovereign of all things, I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except You. I take refuge in You from the evil of my soul and from the evil and shirk of the devil, and from committing wrong against my soul or bringing such upon another Muslim.’
11- بِسـمِ اللهِ الذي لا يَضُـرُّ مَعَ اسمِـهِ شَيءٌ في الأرْضِ وَلا في السّمـاءِ وَهـوَ السّمـيعُ العَلـيم . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/323]
Bismil-lâhil-ladhee lâ yadurru macas-mihii shaey-un fil-ardi walâ fis-samâ-i wahuwas-sameecul-caleem.
‘In the name of Allah with whose name nothing is harmed on earth nor in the heavens and He is The All-Seeing, The All-Knowing.’(three times)
12- رَضيـتُ بِاللهِ رَبَّـاً وَبِالإسْلامِ ديـناً وَبِمُحَـمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَبِيّـاً . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/318]
 Radeetu billâhi rabban wabil-islâm deenan wabiMuhammadin (nnpeace be upon to him) nabiyyan.
‘I am pleased with Allah as a Lord, and Islam as a religion and Muhammad peace be upon to him as a Prophet.’(three times
13- سُبْحـانَ اللهِ وَبِحَمْـدِهِ عَدَدَ خَلْـقِه ، وَرِضـا نَفْسِـه ، وَزِنَـةَ عَـرْشِـه ، وَمِـدادَ كَلِمـاتِـه . (ثلاثاً)    [مسلم 4/2090]
Subhânal-lâhi wabihamdih, cadada khalqihi waridâ nafsih, wazinata carshih, wamidâda kalimâtih.
‘How perfect Allah is and I praise Him by the number of His creation and His pleasure, and by the weight of His throne, and the ink of His words.’(three times)
14- سُبْحـانَ اللهِ وَبِحَمْـدِهِ . (مائة مرة)    [مسلم 4/2071]
Subhânal-lâh wabihamdih.
‘How perfect Allah is and I praise Him.’(one hundred times)
15- يا حَـيُّ يا قَيّـومُ بِـرَحْمَـتِكِ أَسْتَـغـيث ، أَصْلِـحْ لي شَـأْنـي كُلَّـه ، وَلا تَكِلـني إِلى نَفْـسي طَـرْفَةَ عَـين .    [صحيح الترغيب والترهيب 1/273]
Yâ hayyu yâ Qayyuum, birahmatika astagheeth, aslih lee sha’nee kullah, walâ takilnee ilâ nafsee tarfata cayn.
‘O Ever Living, O Self-Subsisting and Supporter of all, by Your mercy I seek assistance, rectify for me all of my affairs and do not leave me to myself, even for the blink of an eye.’
16- لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وحْـدَهُ لا شَـريكَ لهُ، لهُ المُـلْكُ ولهُ الحَمْـد، وهُوَ على كُلّ شَيءٍ قَدير . (مائة مرة)    [البخاري 4/95 ومسلم 4/2071]
 La ilâha illal-lâh, wahdahuu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa cala kulli shaey-in qadeer.
‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise, and He is over all things omnipotent.’ (one hundred times)
17- أَمْسَيْـنا وَأَمْسـى المُـلكُ للهِ رَبِّ العـالَمـين ، اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ خَـيْرَ هـذا الـيَوْم ، فَـتْحَهُ ، وَنَصْـرَهُ ، وَنـورَهُ وَبَـرَكَتَـهُ ، وَهُـداهُ ، وَأَعـوذُ بِـكَ مِـنْ شَـرِّ ما فـيهِ وَشَـرِّ ما بَعْـدَه .    [أبو داود 4/322]
Asbahnâ wa-asbahal-mulku lillâh rabbil-calameen, allâhumma innee as-aluka khaeyra hadhal-yaowm, fat-hahu, wanasrahu, wanuurahu, wabarakatahu, wahudâhu, wa-acoodhu bika min sharri mâ feehi, washarri mâ bacdah.
‘We have reached the evening and at this very time all sovereignty belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds. O Allah, I ask You for the good of this day, its triumphs and its victories, its light and its blessings and its guidance, and I take refuge in You from the evil of this day and the evil that follows it.’
  1. After every obligatory prayer (Salaat)
– أَسْـتَغْفِرُ الله . (ثَلاثاً)
اللّهُـمَّ أَنْـتَ السَّلامُ ، وَمِـنْكَ السَّلام ، تَبارَكْتَ يا ذا الجَـلالِ وَالإِكْـرام .    [مسلم 1/414]
Astaghfirul-lâh (three times)
Allâhumma antas-Salâm waminkas-Salâm, tabarakta yâ dhal-jalâli wal-ikrâm.
‘I ask Allah for forgiveness.’ (three times)
‘O Allah, You are As-Salam and from You is all peace, blessed are You, O Possessor of majesty and honour.’ AS-Salam: The One Who is free from all defects and deficiencies.
2- لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وحدَهُ لا شريكَ لهُ، لهُ المُـلْكُ ولهُ الحَمْد، وهوَ على كلّ شَيءٍ قَدير، اللّهُـمَّ لا مانِعَ لِما أَعْطَـيْت، وَلا مُعْطِـيَ لِما مَنَـعْت، وَلا يَنْفَـعُ ذا الجَـدِّ مِنْـكَ الجَـد.    [البخاري 1/255 ومسلم 414]
Lâ ilâha illâl-lahu wahdahu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa calâ kulli shaeyin qadeer, allâhumma lâ mânica limâ actaeyt, walâ muctiya limâ manact, walâ yanfacu dhal-jadd minkal-jadd.
‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise and He is over all things omnipotent.O Allah, none can prevent what You have willed to bestow and none can bestow what You have willed to prevent, and no wealth or majesty can benefit anyone, as from You is all wealth and majesty.’
3- لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّه, وحدَهُ لا شريكَ لهُ، لهُ الملكُ ولهُ الحَمد، وهوَ على كلّ شيءٍ قدير، لا حَـوْلَ وَلا قـوَّةَ إِلاّ بِاللهِ، لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّـه، وَلا نَعْـبُـدُ إِلاّ إيّـاه, لَهُ النِّعْـمَةُ وَلَهُ الفَضْل وَلَهُ الثَّـناءُ الحَـسَن، لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ مخْلِصـينَ لَـهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَـرِهَ الكـافِرون.    [مسلم 1/415]
Lâ ilâha illal-lâh, wahdahu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa cala kulli shaeyin qadeer. Lâ haowla walâ quwwata illâ billâh, lâ ilâha illal-lah, walâ nacbudu illâ iyyâh, lahun-nicmatu walahul-fadl walahuth-thanâ-ul-hasan, lâ ilâha illal-lah mukhliseena lahud-deen walaow karihal-kafiruun.
‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise and He is over all things omnipotent. There is no might nor power except with Allah, none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and we worship none except Him. For Him is all favour, grace, and glorious praise. None has the right to be worshipped except Allah and we are sincere in faith and devotion to Him although the disbelievers detest it.’
4- سُـبْحانَ اللهِ، والحَمْـدُ لله ، واللهُ أكْـبَر . (ثلاثاً وثلاثين)
لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وَحْـدَهُ لا شريكَ لهُ، لهُ الملكُ ولهُ الحَمْد، وهُوَ على كُلّ شَيءٍ قَـدير .    [مسلم 1/418]
Subhânal-lah walhamdu lillâh, wallâhu akbar (thirty-three times).
Lâ ilâha illal-lahu wahdahu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa calâ kulli shaeyin qadeer. ‘How perfect Allah is, all praise is for Allah, and Allah is the greatest.’ (thirty-three times)
‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise and He is over all things omnipotent.’
5- ( قُـلْ هُـوَ اللهُ أَحَـدٌ …..) [ الإِخْـلاصْ ]
( قُـلْ أَعـوذُ بِرَبِّ الفَلَـقِ…..) [ الفَلَـقْ ]
( قُـلْ أَعـوذُ بِرَبِّ النّـاسِ…..)[ الـنّاس ] (ثلاث مرات بعد صلاتي الفجر والمغرب. ومرة بعد الصلوات الأخرى)    [أبو داود 2/86 والنسائي 3/68]
{Qul huwa Allahu ahad…} [i.e. full text of Suuratul-Ikhlâs, Qur’ân, Chapter 112]
{Qul acuudhu birabbil-falaq…..} [i.e. full text of Suuratul-Falaq, Qur’ân, Chapter 113].
{Qul acuudhu birabbin-nâs…..} [i.e. full text of Suuratun-Nâs, Qur’ân, Chapter 114].
(After morning and evening prayers, 3 times. After the other prayers 1 time.)
6- ( اللّهُ لا إلهَ إلاّ هُـوَ الـحَيُّ القَيّـومُ لا تَأْخُـذُهُ سِنَـةٌ وَلا نَـوْمٌ …..) [آية الكرسي – البقرة:255]    [النسائي في عمل اليوم والليلة برقم 100]
{Allâhu lâ ilâha illâ huwal-Hayyul-Qayyuum lâ ta’khudhuhu sinatun walâ naowm…} [The popular Aayatul-Kursiy, verse 255 of Suuratul-Baqarah]
7- لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وحْـدَهُ لا شريكَ لهُ، لهُ المُلكُ ولهُ الحَمْد، يُحيـي وَيُمـيتُ وهُوَ على كُلّ شيءٍ قدير . (عَشْر مَرّات بَعْدَ المَغْرِب وَالصّـبْح )    [الترمذي 5/515]
Lâ ilâha illal-lahu wahdahu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa calâ kulli shaeyin qadeer. (ten times after the maghrib & fajr prayers)
‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise, He gives life and causes death and He is over all things omnipotent.’ (ten times after the maghrib and fajr prayers)
7- اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أَسْأَلُـكَ عِلْمـاً نافِعـاً وَرِزْقـاً طَيِّـباً ، وَعَمَـلاً مُتَقَـبَّلاً . (بَعْد السّلامِ من صَلاةِ الفَجْر )    [صحيح ابن ماجه 1/152]
Allâhumma innee as-aluka cilman nâfican, warizqan tayyiban, wacamalan mutaqabbalan.(after salam from fajr prayer).
‘O Allah, I ask You for knowledge which is beneficial and sustenance which is good, and deeds which are acceptable.’ (To be said after giving salam for the fajr prayer)
  1. Prayer before sleeping
– بِاسْمِكَ رَبِّـي وَضَعْـتُ جَنْـبي ، وَبِكَ أَرْفَعُـه، فَإِن أَمْسَـكْتَ نَفْسـي فارْحَـمْها ، وَإِنْ أَرْسَلْتَـها فاحْفَظْـها بِمـا تَحْفَـظُ بِه عِبـادَكَ الصّـالِحـين .
Bismika rabbee wadactu janbee wabika arfacuh, fa-in amsakta nafsee farhamhâ, wa-in arsaltahâ fahfadhhâ bimâ tahfadhu bihi cibâdakas-sâliheen.
‘In Your name my Lord, I lie down and in Your name I rise, so if You should take my soul then have mercy upon it, and if You should return my soul then protect it in the manner You do so with Your righteous servants.’
2- اللّهُـمَّ إِنَّـكَ خَلَـقْتَ نَفْسـي وَأَنْـتَ تَوَفّـاهـا لَكَ ممَـاتـها وَمَحْـياها ، إِنْ أَحْيَيْـتَها فاحْفَظْـها ، وَإِنْ أَمَتَّـها فَاغْفِـرْ لَـها . اللّهُـمَّ إِنَّـي أَسْـأَلُـكَ العـافِـيَة .    [مسلم 4/2083]
Allâhumma innaka khalaqta nafsee wa-anta tawaffahâ, laka mamâtuhâ wamahyâhâ in ahyaeytahâ fahfadhhâ, wa-in amattahâ faghfir lahâ. Allâhumma innee as-alukal-cafiyah.
‘O Allah, verily You have created my soul and You shall take its life, to You belongs its life and death. If You should keep my soul alive then protect it, and if You should take its life then forgive it. O Allah, I ask You to grant me good health.’
3- اللّهُـمَّ قِنـي عَذابَـكَ يَـوْمَ تَبْـعَثُ عِبـادَك . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/311]
Allahumma qinee cadhâbaka yaowma tabcathu cibdâk.
‘O Allah, protect me from Your punishment on the day Your servants are resurrected.’ (three times)
4- بِاسْـمِكَ اللّهُـمَّ أَمـوتُ وَأَحْـيا .    [البخاري مع الفتح 11/113 ومسلم 4/2083]
Bismikal-lâhumma amuutu wa-ahyâ.
‘In Your name O Allah, I live and die.’
5- الـحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذي أَطْـعَمَنا وَسَقـانا، وَكَفـانا، وَآوانا، فَكَـمْ مِمَّـنْ لا كـافِيَ لَـهُ وَلا مُـؤْوي.    [مسلم 4/2085]
Alhamdu lillahil-ladhee atcamanâ wasaqânâ, wakafânâ, wa-âwânâ, fakam mimman la kâfiya lahu walâ mu’wee.
‘All praise is for Allah, Who fed us and gave us drink, and Who is sufficient for us and has sheltered us, for how many have none to suffice them or shelter them.’
6- اللّهُـمَّ عالِـمَ الغَـيبِ وَالشّـهادةِ فاطِـرَ السّماواتِ وَالأرْضِ رَبَّ كُـلِّ شَـيءٍ وَمَليـكَه، أَشْهـدُ أَنْ لا إِلـهَ إِلاّ أَنْت، أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِن شَـرِّ نَفْسـي، وَمِن شَـرِّ الشَّيْـطانِ وَشِـرْكِه، وَأَنْ أَقْتَـرِفَ عَلـى نَفْسـي سوءاً أَوْ أَجُـرَّهُ إِلـى مُسْـلِم .    [أبو داود 4/317]
Allâhumma calimal-ghaeybi wash-shahâdah, fâtiras-samâwati wal-ard, rabba kulli shaeyin wamaleekah, ashhadu an lâ ilâha illâ ant, acuudhu bika min sharri nafsee wamin sharrish-shaeytvni washirkih, wa-an aqtarifa calâ nafsee suu-an aow ajurrahuu ilâ muslim.
‘O Allah, Knower of the seen and the unseen, Creator of the heavens and the earth, Lord and Sovereign of all things I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except You. I take refuge in You from the evil of my soul and from the evil and shirk of the devil, and from committing wrong against my soul or bringing such upon another Muslim.’ shirk: to associate others with Allah in those things which are specific to Him. This can occur in (1) belief, e.g. to believe that other than Allah has the power to benefit or harm, (2) speech, e.g. to swear by other than Allah and (3) action, e.g. to bow or prostrate to other than Allah.
7- اللّهُـمَّ أَسْـلَمْتُ نَفْـسي إِلَـيْكَ، وَفَوَّضْـتُ أَمْـري إِلَـيْكَ، وَوَجَّـهْتُ وَجْـهي إِلَـيْكَ، وَأَلْـجَـاْتُ ظَهـري إِلَـيْكَ، رَغْبَـةً وَرَهْـبَةً إِلَـيْكَ، لا مَلْجَـأَ وَلا مَنْـجـا مِنْـكَ إِلاّ إِلَـيْكَ، آمَنْـتُ بِكِتـابِكَ الّـذي أَنْزَلْـتَ وَبِنَبِـيِّـكَ الّـذي أَرْسَلْـت .    [البخاري مع الفتح 11/113 ومسلم 4/2081]
Allâhumma aslamtu nafsee ilaeyk, wafawwadtu amree ilaeyk, wawajjahtu wajhee ilaeyk, wa-alja’tu dhahree ilaeyk, raghbatan warahbatan ilaeyk, lâ malja’a walâ manjâ minka illâ ilaeyk, âmantu bikitâbikal-ladhee anzalt, wabinabiyyikal-ladhee arsalt.
‘O Allah, I submit my soul unto You, and I entrust my affair unto You, and I turn my face towards You, and I totally rely on You, in hope and fear of You. Verily there is no refuge nor safe haven from You except with You. I believe in Your Book which You have revealed and in Your Prophet whom You have sent.’
  1. Prayer before setting out from house
بِسْمِ اللهِ ، تَوَكَّلْـتُ عَلى اللهِ وَلا حَوْلَ وَلا قُـوَّةَ إِلاّ بِالله.   [أبو داود 4/325 والترمذي 5/490]
Bismil-lâh, tawakkaltu calal-lâh, walâ haowla walâ quwwata illâ billâh.
‘In the name of Allah, I place my trust in Allah, and there is no might nor power except with Allah.’
2- اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أَعـوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أَضِـلَّ أَوْ أُضَـل ، أَوْ أَزِلَّ أَوْ أُزَل ، أَوْ أَظْلِـمَ أَوْ أَُظْلَـم ، أَوْ أَجْهَلَ أَوْ يُـجْهَلَ عَلَـيّ .   [صحيح الترمذي 3/152]
Allâhumma innee acuudhu bika an adilla aow udall, aow azilla aow uzall, aow adhlima aow udhlam, aow ajhala aow yujhala calay.
‘O Allah, I take refuge with You lest I should stray or be led astray, or slip or be tripped, or oppress or be oppressed, or behave foolishly or be treated foolishly.’ slip: i.e. to commit a sin unintentionally
  1. Prayer upon entering house
بِسْـمِ اللهِ وَلَجْنـا، وَبِسْـمِ اللهِ خَـرَجْنـا، وَعَلـى رَبِّنـا تَوَكّلْـنا.   [أبو داود 4/325]
Bismil-lâhi walajnâ, wabismil-lâhi kharajnâ, wacalâ rabbinâ tawakkalnâ.
‘In the name of Allah we enter and in the name of Allah we leave, and upon our Lord we place our trust.’
  1. Prayer to be said when waking up from sleep
– الحَمْـدُ لِلّهِ الّذي أَحْـيانا بَعْـدَ ما أَماتَـنا وَإليه النُّـشور.   [البخاري مع الفتح 11/ 113 ومسلم 4/ 2083]
Alhamdu lillâhil-ladhee ahyânâ bacda mâ amâtanâ wa-ilaeyhin-nushuur.
‘All praise is for Allah who gave us life after having taken it from us and unto Him is the resurrection.’
2- الحمدُ للهِ الذي عافاني في جَسَدي وَرَدّ عَليّ روحي وَأَذِنَ لي بِذِكْرِه .   [الترمذي 5/ 473]
Alhamdu lillâhil-ladhee cafanee fee jasadee waradda calayya ruuhee wa-adhina lee bidhikrih.
‘All praise is for Allah who restored to me my health and returned my soul and has allowed me to remember Him.’
3- لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وَحْـدَهُ لا شَـريكَ له، لهُ المُلـكُ ولهُ الحَمـد، وهوَ على كلّ شيءٍ قدير، سُـبْحانَ اللهِ، والحمْـدُ لله ، ولا إلهَ إلاّ اللهُ واللهُ أكبَر، وَلا حَولَ وَلا قوّة إلاّ باللّهِ العليّ العظيم.
رَبِّ اغْفرْ لي.   [البخاري مع الفتح 3/ 144]
The Prophet said : ‘Whoever awakes at night and then says:
Lâ ilâha illal-lahu wahdahu lâ shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa calâ kulli shaeyin qadeer., subhânal-lâh, walhamdu lillâh, walâ ilâha illal-lâh wallâhu akbar, walâ haowla walâ quwwata illâ billâhil-caliyyil-cadheem.
Rabbigh-fir lee
‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone without associate, to Him belongs sovereignty and praise and He is over all things wholly capable. How perfect Allah is, and all praise is for Allah, and none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, Allah is the greatest and there is no power nor might except with Allah, The Most High, The Supreme.
and then supplicates:
‘O my Lord forgive me.’ …will be forgiven’
“or he said: ‘and then asks, he will be answered.If he then performs ablution and prays, his prayer will be accepted’.”
  1. Supplication for wearing new cloth
– الحمدُ للهِ الّذي كَساني هذا (الثّوب) وَرَزَقَنيه مِنْ غَـيـْرِ حَولٍ مِنّي وَلا قـوّة.   [إرواء الغليل 7/47]
Alhamdu lillâhil-ladhee kasânee hâdha (aththaowb) warazaqaneehi min ghaeyri haowlin minnee walâ quwwah.
‘All Praise is for Allah who has clothed me with this garment and provided it for me, with no power or might from myself.’
  1. A comprehensive Prophetic supplication

اللهم اهدنا فيمن هديت، وعافنا فيمن عافيت، وتولنا فيمن توليت، وبارك لنا من الخير فيما أعطيت، وقنا واصرف عنا شر ما قضيت، فإنك تقضي ولا يقضى عليك، فإنه لا يذل من واليت، ولا يعز من عاديت، تباركت ربنا وتعاليت، ولك الحمد على ما قضيت، نستغفرك ونتوب إليك، ولا إله إلا أنت، سبحانك وقنا عذاب النار.

  • Allâhuma ihdinâ fiman hadait, wacâfinâ fiman câfait, watawallanâ fimantawallait, wabâriklanâ minalkhair fimâ actait, waqinâ wasrif annâ sharra mâ qadait, fainnakataqdi walâ yuqdâ calaik, fainnahu lâ yazillu man wâlait, walâ yacizzman câdait, tabarakta rabbanâ watacalait, walakalhamd calâ mâ Nastagfiruka wanatuubu ilaik. Walailâha illâ ant, subhânaka waqinnâ cazâban-nâr.

Oh Allah! Include us among those You are guiding. Count us among those who You restore their health. Make us among those You taking good care of. Bless all good things You endow us with. Protect and shied us from evil things You cause to be. Surely, You are the One that adjudicates (on everybody and between creatures) but nobody adjudicates against You. Surely, nobody You take care of becomes humiliated. (Likewise), nobody You deserts becomes glorious. Oh our Lord! Blessed and Exalted You are. (We give) praises (and thanks) unto You on what You predestined (for us). We seek Your forgiveness and we repent unto You. There is no deity (that deserves to be worshipped) except Thee. Glory to Thee and we seek Your protection against Hellfire.

Finally, I pray Almighty Allâh to forgive me my sins, trespasses and shotcomings. I equally urge whoever who benefits from this humble effort to pray for me and guide me in whatever lapses he\she may notice therein.

May the infinite blessings of Allâh be upon the noblest Prophet, his household, companions and all the righteous people till Yaowmul-Qiyâmah (Day of Judgement).

THE NIGERIAN NATIONAL LANGUAGE QUESTION: ARABIC AS A VIABLE OPTION

THE NIGERIAN NATIONAL LANGUAGE QUESTION: ARABIC AS A VIABLE OPTION

 

 

Abdul-Hafeez Adeniyi Ahmad Adedimeji,

 Department of General Studies,

FountainUniversity, Osogbo.

E-mail: abdulhafeezmeji@hotmail.com& abdulhafeezmeji@yahoo.com

Tel: +2348059310129& +2348121521380

1.0 Introduction 

The need for every country to have a national language that will serve as a unifying factor for its entire citizenry is crucial for its identity and germane to its harmonious relationship, mutual coexistence and development. Many countries in the world are lucky to have a common mother tongue while most other countries resort to adopting one of their numerous indigenous languages as the national language. This national language may be the official language that the country uses for documenting its formal engagements and\or establishing its diplomatic relationships with other countries and may be different from it. Every citizen of a country understands and\or speaks the national language although there may be other languages that are sectional or regional. It is the absence of this national or common language in Nigeria that makes this paper proposes the suitability, viability and sustainability of Arabic for this purpose. While the paper does not shy away that this language may be linked to Islam in one way or the other, it relies on the fact that it is the only Nigerian indigenous language, being the native language of Shuwa Arabs of the present-day Bornu State, with international appeal to argue for its adoption. The juxtapositions and illuminations of roles and contributions of Arabic to the nation’s history and West African architecture are some of weapons this research relies on to advocate that Arabic should be embraced by all Nigerians regardless of their socio-religious affiliations and the geographical locations.

 

 

 

2.0 The appalling Nigerian language situation

Language is the most noticeable feature of social entity and the most enduring aspect of any culture. Culture, as opined by E.B. Tylor (Anne Cooper and Elsie A. Maxwell 2003: 148)  is “that complex whole which included knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society”. Language is very critical to the preservation of cultural heritage of any given society and very vital to  its harmonious coexistence. Nothing can be more truthful and realistic in this regard than the Arabic saying which goes thus: “He who learns the language of a people becomes immune to their ploy”. It is also the most major distinguishing factor between human beings and other living creatures and the most highly developed form of communication that man is endowed with. Its essence, significance and status as a social activity is evident in Augusta Phil Omamar’s (2003: 27) conceptualization thus:

Language, whatever else it may or may not be, is the most important, most often used and most highly developed form of human communication. It is, in a sense, what sets humans apart from other animals which also happen to communicate in the sense of transmitting information of one kind or the other from a sender/source to a receiver. The big difference in the case of humans is not just that both sender and receiver are human as would naturally be expected, but also that the message is either sent vocally through the air and the vocal organs, orthographically by making particular kind of marks on paper.

Nigeria, being the most populous African country, is being looked upon to take its rightful position in leadership position of the continent. Apart from the numerical strength that naturally gives the country an edge above other countries, the assertion that  the country is naturally endowed amounts to stating the obvious.  Reader (Reader, J. 1997: 660) observed thus: “The surge of optimism which has accompanied the transfer of power in Africa has been especially evident in the case of Nigeria. With the continent’s largest population, experienced politicians, an efficient civil service and the benefit of a strong, diversified economy, Nigeria was expected to be at the fore-front of economic and political progress in Africa leading the continent’s transition from an under –developed to a developed region”.

However, the materialization of the above hope remains a mirage due to a large number of factors too numerous to mention here. What this writer is pre-occupied with at this juncture is how multiplicity of languages has contributed to the backwardness or retardation of the country’s socio-political and economic spheres. In other to establish the enormity of the problem, let us first take a brief look at the country’s linguistic setting.

To try to determine the exact number of languages indigenous to Nigeria is a daunting task. Estimates have ranged from 200 to 400. The fundamental problem is a linguistic one: the problem of differentiating language from dialect, of deciding how to classify a particular speech system that serves for communication within a social group. In a situation of such multiplicity, it is not surprising (though not inevitable) that greater prominence that some languages enjoy over others is determined by number of speakers. Again, for lack of reliable statistics, it is impossible to be precise, but there can be no doubt that the number of native speakers of three of Nigeria’s languages, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, runs to several millions(Jowitt, D. 1991: 9). Apart from the three languages, languages like Kanuri, Fulfulde, Tiv, Efik, Ibibio, Edo, Nupe, Gwari, Igala and Idoma have millions of people that are speaking each of them as their mother tongue.

It is this multi –ethnic situation that threw up the country’s immediate post –independent rulers and the first generation of politicians who have been accepted as national heroes. While the duo of AlhajiAbubakarTafawaBalewa and Sir Ahmadu Bello represented the interest of the Hausa – Fulani tribes of the North, Chiefs ObafemiAwolowo and, to a lesser degree, Samuel LadokeAkintola were regarded as leaders of Yorubas while Dr. NnamdiAzikiwe who was then assisted by Sir Michael Okpara held the sway the Igbo –speaking Eastern Nigeria. Each of these tried their best to protect and project the interests of their tribes and  ethnic entities. In other to actualize this and towards leaving their indelible marks in the annals of history, each of the above-mentioned national heroes left no stone unturned to make their people the dominant tribe in the affairs of the country (Adedimeji, A.A.A. 2012: 125).

This scenario led to a lot of unhealthy rivalry, accusations and counter –accusations that heated up the polity and threatened to tear the nation to shreds. The events that led to the nation’s protracted civil war that occurred between 1967-1970are too glaring to expatiate on at this juncture. This situation has made Adedimeji (Adedimeji M.A. 2012: 166) to conclude that, naturally, “ the language question assumes a critical and controversial dimension in a multi-lingual country, a typical example of which is Nigeria, with several languages competing for roles when the question is unduly politicized and sentimentalized”.

One measure that the successive military governments that ruled the country thought will break the backbone of predominance of three major tribes on the national scene, the unnecessary rivalry between them and what resulted from their overbearing posture at the regional level was states’ creation. The then powerful three regions were continually broken into smaller and weaker states that stand now at 36 and the Federal Capital Territory (F.C.T.)

However, states’ creation and breaking of the country into smaller units had, rather solve the pathetic situation, aggravated Nigeria’s ethnic and social problems. The hitherto smaller tribes who counted very little or nothing in the scene during the era of regions have become supers and formidable challengers in the present-day states. With each of them insisting to be officially recognized, virtually every tribe in each of the states want its language recognized and given its due by airing news and events in its mother tongue.

It is in response to these divergent agitations that Jowitt (Jowitt, D. 1991:9) asserted that in old Plateau State which consists of the present Plateau and Nasarawa States, news was usually given in no fewer than eleven languages while in the old Bendel State, which has been broken to Edo and Delta States, the situation was not far from being similar as news is being aired in seven different languages. In Kwara state which is one of the smallest states in Nigeria, the present writer who has worked in the state for some years can attest to the fact that news broadcasts and some other vital programmes are duplicated in most public Radio and Television stations in not less than five different languages.

In a nutshell, the multiplicity of Nigerian indigenous languages has been a curse to the country more than a blessing. It has led to shedding of blood, intra-friction, inter-friction and bitterness between contending tribal leaders who are always at each other’s throat. In addition to this, it has battered the country’s image abroad and contributed in no small measure to the economic retardation and retrogression of the country. Not few people in and outside the country believed that the annulment of June 12, 1993 presidential election won by the late business mogul, Chief MoshoodAbiola and the political impasse that followed the silly and sinful action was due to the reluctance of the then military government headed by a Northerner to hand over power to a freely and democratically elected Yoruba man from the South. (Adedimeji, A.A.A. 2012: 126). Or else, how can one justify the then military junta’s  annulment of election won by a candidate adjudged to be one of the best brains and most detribalized Nigerians?

This ugly situation and the need to have a national language that will unify all Nigerians regardless of their affiliations and the geographical locations where they hail from make the consideration of Arabic for this purpose at this juncture desirable and imperative. I need to assert here that English which is the country’s official language is incapable of playing this role as experience has shown that a larger percentage of Nigerians do not speak it due to its elitist nature on one part and the fact some groups or individuals still regard it, rightly or wrongly, as a colonial imposition that is better discarded.

3.0     Arabic presence in Africa and its acceptability in the world

Although it is right to refer to Arabic as the liturgical language of Islam, it does not derive its significance from the noble religion alone. Rather, it is an international language which enjoys a very wide acceptance. It is has played a vital role in the socio –political life of the early West African Empires.

For example, the famous Mansa Kankan Musa who ruled the Old Mali Empire between 1307A.D. and 1332A.D. utilized his connections with the Arabs to better the lots of his subjects and consolidate his hos on government. His historical pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324A.D. was a landmark event in the history of the Empire and a turning point in the prosperity of its economy. It is difficult to forget the laudable role Mansa Musa’s connection with the Arabs played in the life and educational development of his people. AsOjelabi (Ojelabi, A. :19) noted:

“On his return, Musa came back with Arab scholars to Mali who helped in raising the standard of learning and the form of architecture. Among others, Es-Saheli, a Spanish Arab who was also a poet accompanied Musa home. Saheli helped to build the magnificent brick mosques of Gao and Timbuktu. He also built a stone palace for Musa in Timbuktu. The Sankore mosque in Timbuktu also served as important centre of learning. The standard of learning was as high as in a modern university. This was evidenced by the fact that a teacher brought from Mecca by Musa had to be sent to Morocco for a three year further training before he could teach at Sankore”.

In fact, Mansa Musa’s real claim to a place of distinction came in consequence of the foreign recognition he gained for Mali. As a result of his pilgrimage, Mali was recognized as world power. Under Musa, Mali established diplomatic missions in Egypt, Arabia and Morocco. He cultivated a somewhat intra –personal friendship with the Sultan of Fez. In 1339, Mali was represented on a world map with the inscription “Rex Malley” while other maps in 1375 bore witness to the existence and greatness of Mansa Musa’s Mali Empire (Ojelabi, A: 13).

This situation of acceptability of Arabic in Africa is not limited to Old Mali Empire alone, it is a fact that Arabic has harmoniously related, and still relating, with the continent. It ranks as the language that has the most influence on African languages, especially Swahili, Hausa, Wolof, Fulfulde and Yoruba. In addition to the major African languages, there are in Nigeria, such other languages such as Nupe, Ebira and Igala that have a large chunk of Arabic lexical items. In fact, Swahili which is one of the major African languages and, perhaps, the most widely spoken of all them derived its name, as attested to by reader, from Arabic. According to Reader (Reader, J.1997 :175-176): “The name itself comes from Arabic Sahil, meaning shore or coast, and could be translated to as “coast dialect”.

At the contemporary level, Arabic is socio-politically on the sprawl across international borders. The spate of spread and importance of Arabic, for example, is evident in the very frequent use of Arabic on the electronic media by the B.B.C., the V.O.N. and the Voice of Nigeria. The Dutch, French, German and Russian national radio stations continually air Arabic versions of their programmes regularly over their network. Besides, Aljazeera (High Arabic Version of CNN’s programme), beams news and programmes to the Arabic –speaking world with this all-important language. The numerous Arabic –satellite transmitting stations beaming programmes to the world give credence to the continuous rise of Arabic internationally. Currently, Arabic is being used as one the languages at the United Nations (U.N.) and at such regional groupings such as the African Union (A.U.) and the Economic Community of West African States (E.C.O.W.A.S.) (Aje, S.A. 2004: 12).

4.0 Prospects and benefits of Arabic as Nigerian national language

The advent of Arabic to Nigeria, as common to all African and world countries whose people embraced Islam, is closely linked to the advent of the religion to the country. This has been as far back as eleventh country. This means that the advent of the language to Nigeria has already clocked 1,000 years. This is because of the fact that “Mai UmmeJilmi (better known as Ibn Abdul Jelil) was the first Bornu-ruler to accept Islam in 1085. DunamaDabeleni was the next ruler to accept and this was in the 13th century”(Ojelabi, A: 13).­

With the above fact, Arabic is the first foreign language that made successful incursion into the Nigerian soil. In fact, referring to Arabic as a foreign language is not accurate as it is known that the Shuwa Arabs of the present – day Bornu State, although relatively small in number, speak Arabic as their mother tongue. So, this writer is very comfortable to say categorically that Arabic is the only indigenous Nigerian language that enjoys global widespread and international acceptance.

Also, Nigeria stands to benefit economically and socially if Arabic is given its rightful place both at the official and unofficial quarters. There is virtually no country in the world today, except the Vatican, perhaps, that has no teaming Muslim population that stands at, at least, tens of thousands. As  at 1978, the Muslim world population was estimated to be 700 million people. This figure must have doubled by now. The most populous Muslim nation is Indonesia which had 135 million Muslims as at then. It is followed by Bangladesh which had 75 million. Standing in the third position is Pakistan with the 73 million Muslim populations. Other populous Muslim nations are: India, Turkey, Nigeria, Egypt and Iran which had 65 million, 40 million, 35 million, 34 million and 33 million Muslims respectively(Al-Kiyaali, A. 1990: 1\189) . The figures quoted above must have doubled by now since more than thirty five years have passed after the quoted estimation. In short, apart from 35 countries that are officially recognized as Muslim\Islamic countries, about 17 countries which include Nigeria have large Muslim population that ranges between 38.7% and 98% (Anne Cooper and Elsie A. Maxwell 2003: 261-262. All thesecountries where teeming number of Muslims reside have large numbers of patrons and admirers of Arabic.

The fact that Arabic is a widely-accepted medium of communication and a very important language to numerous people at the global level is emphasized by Encyclopedia Britannica when it describes it as “of over-whelming importance as the language of the revelation of Islam and of the Qur’an, which Muslims regard as the epitome of literary excellence”.

Although, in the light of the afore-stated reality, it is right to refer to Arabic as the liturgical language of Islam, it does not derive its significance from the divine religion alone. Rather, it is an international language which enjoys a very wide acceptance. It has also contributed in no small measure to human civilization. The wide acceptance, universality and vintage status of Arabic vis-à-vis other international languages is chronicled by Oladosu(Oladosu, A.G.A.S. 2012: 10-11), relying heavily on a research published by the duo of Chejne and B. Whitaker in 1969 and 2009 respectively, in these glittering words:

Arabic is a universally recognized language, occupying a position which is not less in status and rank than that occupied by other international languages like English, French or German. It has long been adopted by the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), as a tool for political and diplomatic exchange. Arabic has native speakers in Africa and Asia, emigrants in North and South America and many non-native speakers scattered around the world. In Africa, it is the native tongue of countries like Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, the Western Sahara and the Sudan. In Asia, it is the medium of expression for countries like Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen and Palestine. By 1969, it was estimated that, altogether, Arabic was being used as liturgical language by more than four hundred million (400,000,000) people. Currently, Arabic ranks sixth in the world’s league table of languages. It is spoken as a mother tongue by an estimated 186 native speakers. The five languages ahead of Arabic are Chinese, Hindi, Spanish, English and Bengali.

From the picture painted above, we can notice the vintage position  Arabicoccupies in the contemporary worldand the rank of Nigeria in the comity of highly populous Muslim nations. Most of the above-named countries are more developed than Nigeria economically, technologically and militarily. Also, the numerical strength of these countries cannot be overlooked. Saudi-Arabia and the Gulf nations which, although smaller in Muslim population than Nigeria, have Arabic as their mother-tongue and official language. The economic and strategic importance of these Gulf States in the contemporary world, especially Saudi-Arabia and United Arabs’ Emirates, cannot be over-emphasized. The assertion that these highly-endowed nations influence the contemporary global politics amounts to stating the obvious.

At the continental level, majority of North African countries that include: Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia and Algeria are Arab countries. In the sub-region of  West Africa, Morocco and Mauritania are Arab countries while a large population of  Senegalese and Gambians patronize and speak  Arabic. The summary of this proposition is that adoption of Arabic as the national language is not, and should not be seen as, a self-serving agenda of the Muslims alone but a holistic approach of making the country more relevant to many African countries, better integrated into the world and benefit from the enormous resources of the Arabic-speaking countries through bilateral trade that can be facilitated by sharing their language.

Another factor that makes Arabic the most viable alternative to English is the fact that it is the only language that Nigerians, indeed the world at large, acquire willingly without thinking of any material gain. It predated English by centuries and has, therefore, become part and parcel of millions of Nigerians and their means of communication that does not know state and regional barriers. This fact has been buttressed by Jowitt(Jowitt, D. 1991: 21) who asserted thus:

“English is not the only non-indigenous language learned by Nigerians. Long before the first Englishmen visited the coast of Nigeria, Arab missionaries, explorers and traders had brought their language to what is now the Northern part of Nigeria. The more intensive Islamization of North in the nineteenth century resulting from the Jihad of UsmandanFodio meant a great increase the number of Nigerians learning Arabic for religious purposes, chiefly in Koranic (sic) schools, and this increase has undoubtedly continued to the present day, especially as many facilities have been created for the study of Arabic at Secondary and tertiary levels. From Arabic, numerous words have entered into the vocabulary of certain Nigeria languages, notably Hausa was written in Arabic script. For some Nigerian Islamic teachers or students, Arabic potentially serves not only as a language of study and religious observance but also for inter-personal communication; and many of them know Arabic better than English. One small group in Borno State has Arabic as its mother-tongue”.

From the above, we can deduce that the decision to adopt English as the Nigeria’s official language was not well thought by the first generation of our indigenous rulers. I heap the blame on the first set of our indigenous rulers because they had the ample opportunity of changing the status quo immediately the colonialists granted independence to this country. This writer is surprised to discover that the colonialists, despite their selfishness and well-known cultural imperialism agenda, never openly declared English as the official language. This fact was exposed by another Christian researcher who  said inter alia:

“The colonial government never expressly declared English as the official language of Nigeria. The tradition going back to the Roman Empire was simply assumed that the colonized adopt the language of the colonizer since the colonizer cannot be expected to operate in anything except in his own mother tongue” (Banjo, Ayo 1996: 66).

Talking about preservation of Nigerian history and its heritage, Arabic has paid its dues.Arabic language can serve as a veritable tool for the attainment of mutual cohesion and national harmony in Nigeria if it is viewed from the fact that it is the oldest language of civilization in the entire West African sub-region. “Before a single West African son knew a word in English or French, some of his people must have learnt Arabic and in many cases started to write various African Languages in Arabic characters, just as English and French are written in Roman characters” (Abubakre, 2004: 5).

Besides,Oloyede (2012: 29) has chronicled that “ no one can deny the intellectual and administrative roles of Islamic scholarship in pre-Independence and administrative Northern and South-Western Nigeria as Arabic Language was a saving grace for Africa’s original contribution to knowledge”.

To buttress the noble role that Arabic language has played in the history of modern-day Nigeria and the fact that it has served as a carrier of civilization and torch – bearer of progress in the nation’s immediate and remote past history, a vivid testimony of  reputable Christian historian and renowned  academic, Kenneth O. Dike, is relevant here:

As an historian myself, I have taken the keenest in this development, for it is through the aid of these Arabic documents and these written in African language in the Arabic script that the scholar will be aided in his task of unlocking the secrets of the African past. It has been a revelation to the whole world of scholarship to realize for the first time that Africa before the European penetration, so far from being a dark continent where the light of scholarship shone brightly, as the Arabic works now being discovered bear testimony… The Arabic scholars of the present, drawing upon the writings of the Arabic scholars of the past, will be able to bring before us the events and happenings of the past ages of Nigeria and so help us to write a history we may rightly call our own” (Oloyede, 2012: 2/48).

The vital roles the contemporary Arabic scholars can play in unlocking the nation’s history as well as the pivotal position of Arabic in beaming the light of knowledge on the African continent are not farfetched, as can be seen from the above-quoted testimony. This reality portrays the language as part and parcel of Nigeria and demonstrates that it is a viable and suitable answer to our national language question as its adoption will surely engender scholarship, facilitate harmony and limit or eradicate the frequent tribal confrontations  and ethnic violence that are unfortunately rampant in our polity.

 

Conclusion

The fact that Arabic has served as a means of historical preservation and an  indigenous language in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general is evident from the above study. Also, the fact that that it is one of the most powerfuland widely-accepted languages cannot be over-emphasised. This paper has used this historical and linguistic facts to buttress that the glorious past of Arabic can be rekindled if official recognition is accorded to this benevolent language by our governments in the various levels and fair-minded scholars begin to see reason  why it deserves to be recognized as our national language so that the country will not only continue to unlock its past through it but mutual and harmonious co-existence between its various nationalities could be achieved on one side and Nigeria will attain accelerated development through bilateral and regional co-operation with the relatively rich and more developed Arab and Islamic countries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

  • Abubakre, R.D. (2004) The Interplay of Arabic and Yoruba Cultures in South-Western Nigeria,Iwo: Darul-‘Ilm Publishers.
  • Adedimeji, A.A.A. (2012) “The Prospects of Arabic Language as a Unifying Force for Nigerian Muslims” In Abdul-Raheem, M.A. (Ed.),Challenges of Moon Sighting and Preservation of Arabic Manuscriptsin Nigeria, Ijebu-Ode: Sebiotimo Publications, Ijebu-Ode, National Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies (NATAIS), pp. 121-140.
  • Adedimeji M.A. (2012), “Islamic Education in Nigeria and Al-Ilori: The Language Question and the Challenges Ahead” In R.D. Abubakre, (Ed.), Shaykh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilory in the Tableau of Immortality,(Riyadh: Nigerian Centre for Arabic Research, 2012,) 2, 159-181.
  • Aje, S.A. (2004) “A Survey of the Sociolinguistic setting of Arabic in Nigeria” in JARS (Journal of Arabic and Religious Studies), a Publication of Department of Religions, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.
  • Cooper A. & Maxwell E.A. (2003) Ishmael My Brother: A Christian Introduction to Islam, Kaduna: Evangel Publishers Ltd.

Al-Kiyaali, A. et al (1990), Maosuuatus-Siyaasah, Beirut: Al-Muassasatul-Arobiyyah Lid-Diraasat Wan-Nashr.

  • Dike, K.O. (as quoted by Oloyede, I.O. in “Trends, Development and Challenges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Nigerian Universities: The Contributions of Shaykh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilori” in Shaykh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilory in the Tableau of Immortality, Riyadh: Nigerian Centre for Arabic Research, 2/45-67.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica(2007), Chicago: William Benton Publishers, vols. 6 and 18.
  • JowTHE NIGERIAN NATIONAL LANGUAGE QUESTION: ARABIC AS A VIABLE OPTION

     

     

    Abdul-Hafeez Adeniyi Ahmad Adedimeji,

     Department of General Studies,

    FountainUniversity, Osogbo.

    E-mail: abdulhafeezmeji@hotmail.com& abdulhafeezmeji@yahoo.com

    Tel: +2348059310129& +2348121521380

    1.0 Introduction 

    The need for every country to have a national language that will serve as a unifying factor for its entire citizenry is crucial for its identity and germane to its harmonious relationship, mutual coexistence and development. Many countries in the world are lucky to have a common mother tongue while most other countries resort to adopting one of their numerous indigenous languages as the national language. This national language may be the official language that the country uses for documenting its formal engagements and\or establishing its diplomatic relationships with other countries and may be different from it. Every citizen of a country understands and\or speaks the national language although there may be other languages that are sectional or regional. It is the absence of this national or common language in Nigeria that makes this paper proposes the suitability, viability and sustainability of Arabic for this purpose. While the paper does not shy away that this language may be linked to Islam in one way or the other, it relies on the fact that it is the only Nigerian indigenous language, being the native language of Shuwa Arabs of the present-day Bornu State, with international appeal to argue for its adoption. The juxtapositions and illuminations of roles and contributions of Arabic to the nation’s history and West African architecture are some of weapons this research relies on to advocate that Arabic should be embraced by all Nigerians regardless of their socio-religious affiliations and the geographical locations.

     

     

     

    2.0 The appalling Nigerian language situation

    Language is the most noticeable feature of social entity and the most enduring aspect of any culture. Culture, as opined by E.B. Tylor (Anne Cooper and Elsie A. Maxwell 2003: 148)  is “that complex whole which included knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society”. Language is very critical to the preservation of cultural heritage of any given society and very vital to  its harmonious coexistence. Nothing can be more truthful and realistic in this regard than the Arabic saying which goes thus: “He who learns the language of a people becomes immune to their ploy”. It is also the most major distinguishing factor between human beings and other living creatures and the most highly developed form of communication that man is endowed with. Its essence, significance and status as a social activity is evident in Augusta Phil Omamar’s (2003: 27) conceptualization thus:

    Language, whatever else it may or may not be, is the most important, most often used and most highly developed form of human communication. It is, in a sense, what sets humans apart from other animals which also happen to communicate in the sense of transmitting information of one kind or the other from a sender/source to a receiver. The big difference in the case of humans is not just that both sender and receiver are human as would naturally be expected, but also that the message is either sent vocally through the air and the vocal organs, orthographically by making particular kind of marks on paper.

    Nigeria, being the most populous African country, is being looked upon to take its rightful position in leadership position of the continent. Apart from the numerical strength that naturally gives the country an edge above other countries, the assertion that  the country is naturally endowed amounts to stating the obvious.  Reader (Reader, J. 1997: 660) observed thus: “The surge of optimism which has accompanied the transfer of power in Africa has been especially evident in the case of Nigeria. With the continent’s largest population, experienced politicians, an efficient civil service and the benefit of a strong, diversified economy, Nigeria was expected to be at the fore-front of economic and political progress in Africa leading the continent’s transition from an under –developed to a developed region”.

    However, the materialization of the above hope remains a mirage due to a large number of factors too numerous to mention here. What this writer is pre-occupied with at this juncture is how multiplicity of languages has contributed to the backwardness or retardation of the country’s socio-political and economic spheres. In other to establish the enormity of the problem, let us first take a brief look at the country’s linguistic setting.

    To try to determine the exact number of languages indigenous to Nigeria is a daunting task. Estimates have ranged from 200 to 400. The fundamental problem is a linguistic one: the problem of differentiating language from dialect, of deciding how to classify a particular speech system that serves for communication within a social group. In a situation of such multiplicity, it is not surprising (though not inevitable) that greater prominence that some languages enjoy over others is determined by number of speakers. Again, for lack of reliable statistics, it is impossible to be precise, but there can be no doubt that the number of native speakers of three of Nigeria’s languages, Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, runs to several millions(Jowitt, D. 1991: 9). Apart from the three languages, languages like Kanuri, Fulfulde, Tiv, Efik, Ibibio, Edo, Nupe, Gwari, Igala and Idoma have millions of people that are speaking each of them as their mother tongue.

    It is this multi –ethnic situation that threw up the country’s immediate post –independent rulers and the first generation of politicians who have been accepted as national heroes. While the duo of AlhajiAbubakarTafawaBalewa and Sir Ahmadu Bello represented the interest of the Hausa – Fulani tribes of the North, Chiefs ObafemiAwolowo and, to a lesser degree, Samuel LadokeAkintola were regarded as leaders of Yorubas while Dr. NnamdiAzikiwe who was then assisted by Sir Michael Okpara held the sway the Igbo –speaking Eastern Nigeria. Each of these tried their best to protect and project the interests of their tribes and  ethnic entities. In other to actualize this and towards leaving their indelible marks in the annals of history, each of the above-mentioned national heroes left no stone unturned to make their people the dominant tribe in the affairs of the country (Adedimeji, A.A.A. 2012: 125).

    This scenario led to a lot of unhealthy rivalry, accusations and counter –accusations that heated up the polity and threatened to tear the nation to shreds. The events that led to the nation’s protracted civil war that occurred between 1967-1970are too glaring to expatiate on at this juncture. This situation has made Adedimeji (Adedimeji M.A. 2012: 166) to conclude that, naturally, “ the language question assumes a critical and controversial dimension in a multi-lingual country, a typical example of which is Nigeria, with several languages competing for roles when the question is unduly politicized and sentimentalized”.

    One measure that the successive military governments that ruled the country thought will break the backbone of predominance of three major tribes on the national scene, the unnecessary rivalry between them and what resulted from their overbearing posture at the regional level was states’ creation. The then powerful three regions were continually broken into smaller and weaker states that stand now at 36 and the Federal Capital Territory (F.C.T.)

    However, states’ creation and breaking of the country into smaller units had, rather solve the pathetic situation, aggravated Nigeria’s ethnic and social problems. The hitherto smaller tribes who counted very little or nothing in the scene during the era of regions have become supers and formidable challengers in the present-day states. With each of them insisting to be officially recognized, virtually every tribe in each of the states want its language recognized and given its due by airing news and events in its mother tongue.

    It is in response to these divergent agitations that Jowitt (Jowitt, D. 1991:9) asserted that in old Plateau State which consists of the present Plateau and Nasarawa States, news was usually given in no fewer than eleven languages while in the old Bendel State, which has been broken to Edo and Delta States, the situation was not far from being similar as news is being aired in seven different languages. In Kwara state which is one of the smallest states in Nigeria, the present writer who has worked in the state for some years can attest to the fact that news broadcasts and some other vital programmes are duplicated in most public Radio and Television stations in not less than five different languages.

    In a nutshell, the multiplicity of Nigerian indigenous languages has been a curse to the country more than a blessing. It has led to shedding of blood, intra-friction, inter-friction and bitterness between contending tribal leaders who are always at each other’s throat. In addition to this, it has battered the country’s image abroad and contributed in no small measure to the economic retardation and retrogression of the country. Not few people in and outside the country believed that the annulment of June 12, 1993 presidential election won by the late business mogul, Chief MoshoodAbiola and the political impasse that followed the silly and sinful action was due to the reluctance of the then military government headed by a Northerner to hand over power to a freely and democratically elected Yoruba man from the South. (Adedimeji, A.A.A. 2012: 126). Or else, how can one justify the then military junta’s  annulment of election won by a candidate adjudged to be one of the best brains and most detribalized Nigerians?

    This ugly situation and the need to have a national language that will unify all Nigerians regardless of their affiliations and the geographical locations where they hail from make the consideration of Arabic for this purpose at this juncture desirable and imperative. I need to assert here that English which is the country’s official language is incapable of playing this role as experience has shown that a larger percentage of Nigerians do not speak it due to its elitist nature on one part and the fact some groups or individuals still regard it, rightly or wrongly, as a colonial imposition that is better discarded.

    3.0     Arabic presence in Africa and its acceptability in the world

    Although it is right to refer to Arabic as the liturgical language of Islam, it does not derive its significance from the noble religion alone. Rather, it is an international language which enjoys a very wide acceptance. It is has played a vital role in the socio –political life of the early West African Empires.

    For example, the famous Mansa Kankan Musa who ruled the Old Mali Empire between 1307A.D. and 1332A.D. utilized his connections with the Arabs to better the lots of his subjects and consolidate his hos on government. His historical pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324A.D. was a landmark event in the history of the Empire and a turning point in the prosperity of its economy. It is difficult to forget the laudable role Mansa Musa’s connection with the Arabs played in the life and educational development of his people. AsOjelabi (Ojelabi, A. :19) noted:

    “On his return, Musa came back with Arab scholars to Mali who helped in raising the standard of learning and the form of architecture. Among others, Es-Saheli, a Spanish Arab who was also a poet accompanied Musa home. Saheli helped to build the magnificent brick mosques of Gao and Timbuktu. He also built a stone palace for Musa in Timbuktu. The Sankore mosque in Timbuktu also served as important centre of learning. The standard of learning was as high as in a modern university. This was evidenced by the fact that a teacher brought from Mecca by Musa had to be sent to Morocco for a three year further training before he could teach at Sankore”.

    In fact, Mansa Musa’s real claim to a place of distinction came in consequence of the foreign recognition he gained for Mali. As a result of his pilgrimage, Mali was recognized as world power. Under Musa, Mali established diplomatic missions in Egypt, Arabia and Morocco. He cultivated a somewhat intra –personal friendship with the Sultan of Fez. In 1339, Mali was represented on a world map with the inscription “Rex Malley” while other maps in 1375 bore witness to the existence and greatness of Mansa Musa’s Mali Empire (Ojelabi, A: 13).

    This situation of acceptability of Arabic in Africa is not limited to Old Mali Empire alone, it is a fact that Arabic has harmoniously related, and still relating, with the continent. It ranks as the language that has the most influence on African languages, especially Swahili, Hausa, Wolof, Fulfulde and Yoruba. In addition to the major African languages, there are in Nigeria, such other languages such as Nupe, Ebira and Igala that have a large chunk of Arabic lexical items. In fact, Swahili which is one of the major African languages and, perhaps, the most widely spoken of all them derived its name, as attested to by reader, from Arabic. According to Reader (Reader, J.1997 :175-176): “The name itself comes from Arabic Sahil, meaning shore or coast, and could be translated to as “coast dialect”.

    At the contemporary level, Arabic is socio-politically on the sprawl across international borders. The spate of spread and importance of Arabic, for example, is evident in the very frequent use of Arabic on the electronic media by the B.B.C., the V.O.N. and the Voice of Nigeria. The Dutch, French, German and Russian national radio stations continually air Arabic versions of their programmes regularly over their network. Besides, Aljazeera (High Arabic Version of CNN’s programme), beams news and programmes to the Arabic –speaking world with this all-important language. The numerous Arabic –satellite transmitting stations beaming programmes to the world give credence to the continuous rise of Arabic internationally. Currently, Arabic is being used as one the languages at the United Nations (U.N.) and at such regional groupings such as the African Union (A.U.) and the Economic Community of West African States (E.C.O.W.A.S.) (Aje, S.A. 2004: 12).

    4.0 Prospects and benefits of Arabic as Nigerian national language

    The advent of Arabic to Nigeria, as common to all African and world countries whose people embraced Islam, is closely linked to the advent of the religion to the country. This has been as far back as eleventh country. This means that the advent of the language to Nigeria has already clocked 1,000 years. This is because of the fact that “Mai UmmeJilmi (better known as Ibn Abdul Jelil) was the first Bornu-ruler to accept Islam in 1085. DunamaDabeleni was the next ruler to accept and this was in the 13th century”(Ojelabi, A: 13).­

    With the above fact, Arabic is the first foreign language that made successful incursion into the Nigerian soil. In fact, referring to Arabic as a foreign language is not accurate as it is known that the Shuwa Arabs of the present – day Bornu State, although relatively small in number, speak Arabic as their mother tongue. So, this writer is very comfortable to say categorically that Arabic is the only indigenous Nigerian language that enjoys global widespread and international acceptance.

    Also, Nigeria stands to benefit economically and socially if Arabic is given its rightful place both at the official and unofficial quarters. There is virtually no country in the world today, except the Vatican, perhaps, that has no teaming Muslim population that stands at, at least, tens of thousands. As  at 1978, the Muslim world population was estimated to be 700 million people. This figure must have doubled by now. The most populous Muslim nation is Indonesia which had 135 million Muslims as at then. It is followed by Bangladesh which had 75 million. Standing in the third position is Pakistan with the 73 million Muslim populations. Other populous Muslim nations are: India, Turkey, Nigeria, Egypt and Iran which had 65 million, 40 million, 35 million, 34 million and 33 million Muslims respectively(Al-Kiyaali, A. 1990: 1\189) . The figures quoted above must have doubled by now since more than thirty five years have passed after the quoted estimation. In short, apart from 35 countries that are officially recognized as Muslim\Islamic countries, about 17 countries which include Nigeria have large Muslim population that ranges between 38.7% and 98% (Anne Cooper and Elsie A. Maxwell 2003: 261-262. All thesecountries where teeming number of Muslims reside have large numbers of patrons and admirers of Arabic.

    The fact that Arabic is a widely-accepted medium of communication and a very important language to numerous people at the global level is emphasized by Encyclopedia Britannica when it describes it as “of over-whelming importance as the language of the revelation of Islam and of the Qur’an, which Muslims regard as the epitome of literary excellence”.

    Although, in the light of the afore-stated reality, it is right to refer to Arabic as the liturgical language of Islam, it does not derive its significance from the divine religion alone. Rather, it is an international language which enjoys a very wide acceptance. It has also contributed in no small measure to human civilization. The wide acceptance, universality and vintage status of Arabic vis-à-vis other international languages is chronicled by Oladosu(Oladosu, A.G.A.S. 2012: 10-11), relying heavily on a research published by the duo of Chejne and B. Whitaker in 1969 and 2009 respectively, in these glittering words:

    Arabic is a universally recognized language, occupying a position which is not less in status and rank than that occupied by other international languages like English, French or German. It has long been adopted by the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), as a tool for political and diplomatic exchange. Arabic has native speakers in Africa and Asia, emigrants in North and South America and many non-native speakers scattered around the world. In Africa, it is the native tongue of countries like Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, the Western Sahara and the Sudan. In Asia, it is the medium of expression for countries like Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen and Palestine. By 1969, it was estimated that, altogether, Arabic was being used as liturgical language by more than four hundred million (400,000,000) people. Currently, Arabic ranks sixth in the world’s league table of languages. It is spoken as a mother tongue by an estimated 186 native speakers. The five languages ahead of Arabic are Chinese, Hindi, Spanish, English and Bengali.

    From the picture painted above, we can notice the vintage position  Arabicoccupies in the contemporary worldand the rank of Nigeria in the comity of highly populous Muslim nations. Most of the above-named countries are more developed than Nigeria economically, technologically and militarily. Also, the numerical strength of these countries cannot be overlooked. Saudi-Arabia and the Gulf nations which, although smaller in Muslim population than Nigeria, have Arabic as their mother-tongue and official language. The economic and strategic importance of these Gulf States in the contemporary world, especially Saudi-Arabia and United Arabs’ Emirates, cannot be over-emphasized. The assertion that these highly-endowed nations influence the contemporary global politics amounts to stating the obvious.

    At the continental level, majority of North African countries that include: Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia and Algeria are Arab countries. In the sub-region of  West Africa, Morocco and Mauritania are Arab countries while a large population of  Senegalese and Gambians patronize and speak  Arabic. The summary of this proposition is that adoption of Arabic as the national language is not, and should not be seen as, a self-serving agenda of the Muslims alone but a holistic approach of making the country more relevant to many African countries, better integrated into the world and benefit from the enormous resources of the Arabic-speaking countries through bilateral trade that can be facilitated by sharing their language.

    Another factor that makes Arabic the most viable alternative to English is the fact that it is the only language that Nigerians, indeed the world at large, acquire willingly without thinking of any material gain. It predated English by centuries and has, therefore, become part and parcel of millions of Nigerians and their means of communication that does not know state and regional barriers. This fact has been buttressed by Jowitt(Jowitt, D. 1991: 21) who asserted thus:

    “English is not the only non-indigenous language learned by Nigerians. Long before the first Englishmen visited the coast of Nigeria, Arab missionaries, explorers and traders had brought their language to what is now the Northern part of Nigeria. The more intensive Islamization of North in the nineteenth century resulting from the Jihad of UsmandanFodio meant a great increase the number of Nigerians learning Arabic for religious purposes, chiefly in Koranic (sic) schools, and this increase has undoubtedly continued to the present day, especially as many facilities have been created for the study of Arabic at Secondary and tertiary levels. From Arabic, numerous words have entered into the vocabulary of certain Nigeria languages, notably Hausa was written in Arabic script. For some Nigerian Islamic teachers or students, Arabic potentially serves not only as a language of study and religious observance but also for inter-personal communication; and many of them know Arabic better than English. One small group in Borno State has Arabic as its mother-tongue”.

    From the above, we can deduce that the decision to adopt English as the Nigeria’s official language was not well thought by the first generation of our indigenous rulers. I heap the blame on the first set of our indigenous rulers because they had the ample opportunity of changing the status quo immediately the colonialists granted independence to this country. This writer is surprised to discover that the colonialists, despite their selfishness and well-known cultural imperialism agenda, never openly declared English as the official language. This fact was exposed by another Christian researcher who  said inter alia:

    “The colonial government never expressly declared English as the official language of Nigeria. The tradition going back to the Roman Empire was simply assumed that the colonized adopt the language of the colonizer since the colonizer cannot be expected to operate in anything except in his own mother tongue” (Banjo, Ayo 1996: 66).

    Talking about preservation of Nigerian history and its heritage, Arabic has paid its dues.Arabic language can serve as a veritable tool for the attainment of mutual cohesion and national harmony in Nigeria if it is viewed from the fact that it is the oldest language of civilization in the entire West African sub-region. “Before a single West African son knew a word in English or French, some of his people must have learnt Arabic and in many cases started to write various African Languages in Arabic characters, just as English and French are written in Roman characters” (Abubakre, 2004: 5).

    Besides,Oloyede (2012: 29) has chronicled that “ no one can deny the intellectual and administrative roles of Islamic scholarship in pre-Independence and administrative Northern and South-Western Nigeria as Arabic Language was a saving grace for Africa’s original contribution to knowledge”.

    To buttress the noble role that Arabic language has played in the history of modern-day Nigeria and the fact that it has served as a carrier of civilization and torch – bearer of progress in the nation’s immediate and remote past history, a vivid testimony of  reputable Christian historian and renowned  academic, Kenneth O. Dike, is relevant here:

    As an historian myself, I have taken the keenest in this development, for it is through the aid of these Arabic documents and these written in African language in the Arabic script that the scholar will be aided in his task of unlocking the secrets of the African past. It has been a revelation to the whole world of scholarship to realize for the first time that Africa before the European penetration, so far from being a dark continent where the light of scholarship shone brightly, as the Arabic works now being discovered bear testimony… The Arabic scholars of the present, drawing upon the writings of the Arabic scholars of the past, will be able to bring before us the events and happenings of the past ages of Nigeria and so help us to write a history we may rightly call our own” (Oloyede, 2012: 2/48).

    The vital roles the contemporary Arabic scholars can play in unlocking the nation’s history as well as the pivotal position of Arabic in beaming the light of knowledge on the African continent are not farfetched, as can be seen from the above-quoted testimony. This reality portrays the language as part and parcel of Nigeria and demonstrates that it is a viable and suitable answer to our national language question as its adoption will surely engender scholarship, facilitate harmony and limit or eradicate the frequent tribal confrontations  and ethnic violence that are unfortunately rampant in our polity.

     

    Conclusion

    The fact that Arabic has served as a means of historical preservation and an  indigenous language in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general is evident from the above study. Also, the fact that that it is one of the most powerfuland widely-accepted languages cannot be over-emphasised. This paper has used this historical and linguistic facts to buttress that the glorious past of Arabic can be rekindled if official recognition is accorded to this benevolent language by our governments in the various levels and fair-minded scholars begin to see reason  why it deserves to be recognized as our national language so that the country will not only continue to unlock its past through it but mutual and harmonious co-existence between its various nationalities could be achieved on one side and Nigeria will attain accelerated development through bilateral and regional co-operation with the relatively rich and more developed Arab and Islamic countries.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    REFERENCES

    • Abubakre, R.D. (2004) The Interplay of Arabic and Yoruba Cultures in South-Western Nigeria,Iwo: Darul-‘Ilm Publishers.
    • Adedimeji, A.A.A. (2012) “The Prospects of Arabic Language as a Unifying Force for Nigerian Muslims” In Abdul-Raheem, M.A. (Ed.),Challenges of Moon Sighting and Preservation of Arabic Manuscriptsin Nigeria, Ijebu-Ode: Sebiotimo Publications, Ijebu-Ode, National Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies (NATAIS), pp. 121-140.
    • Adedimeji M.A. (2012), “Islamic Education in Nigeria and Al-Ilori: The Language Question and the Challenges Ahead” In R.D. Abubakre, (Ed.), Shaykh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilory in the Tableau of Immortality,(Riyadh: Nigerian Centre for Arabic Research, 2012,) 2, 159-181.
    • Aje, S.A. (2004) “A Survey of the Sociolinguistic setting of Arabic in Nigeria” in JARS (Journal of Arabic and Religious Studies), a Publication of Department of Religions, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.
    • Cooper A. & Maxwell E.A. (2003) Ishmael My Brother: A Christian Introduction to Islam, Kaduna: Evangel Publishers Ltd.

    Al-Kiyaali, A. et al (1990), Maosuuatus-Siyaasah, Beirut: Al-Muassasatul-Arobiyyah Lid-Diraasat Wan-Nashr.

    • Dike, K.O. (as quoted by Oloyede, I.O. in “Trends, Development and Challenges of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Nigerian Universities: The Contributions of Shaykh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilori” in Shaykh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilory in the Tableau of Immortality, Riyadh: Nigerian Centre for Arabic Research, 2/45-67.
    • Encyclopedia Britannica(2007), Chicago: William Benton Publishers, vols. 6 and 18.
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    • Oladosu, A.G.A.S. (2012) Fluctuations in the Fortunes of Arabic Education in Nigeria, (Ilorin: University of Ilorin Library and Publication Committee.
    • Oloyede, I.O. (2012) Islamics:The Conflux of Disciplines, Ilorin: University of Ilorin Library and Publication Committee.
    • Omamar, A.P. (2003) “Of Linguistics, Knowledge and Service to the Nation”, In Saliu, N.B. (Ed.), Nigerian Universities’ Inaugural Lectures Series, Abuja: National Universities Commission, p. 23-42.
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    itt, D. (1991) Nigerian English Usage: An Introduction, Ikeja, Longman Plc.

  • Ojelabi, A. , A Textbook of West African History, Ibadan, Educational Research Institute.
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  • Oloyede, I.O. (2012) Islamics:The Conflux of Disciplines, Ilorin: University of Ilorin Library and Publication Committee.
  • Omamar, A.P. (2003) “Of Linguistics, Knowledge and Service to the Nation”, In Saliu, N.B. (Ed.), Nigerian Universities’ Inaugural Lectures Series, Abuja: National Universities Commission, p. 23-42.
  • Reader, J. (1997) Africa: A Biography of the Continent, London, Pengium Books.

The Degeneration of the Generation

Bismillaah Ar-Rahmaan Ar-Raheem

 

THE DEGENERATION OF THE GENERATION

(Being excerpts of a sermon delivered by the Chief Imaam, Fountain University, Osogbo, Sheikh Abdul-Hafeez A.A. Adedimeji, in the University Main Mosque on Friday, 22nd of Sha’baan, 1435 A.H. corresponding to 20th June, 2014 C.E.)

My dear muslim brothers and sisters! Prices of commodities are sky-rocketing! The women are walking on the streets half-naked! The mosques are empty! Allaah’s injunctions are not being implemented in the lives of people! Thieves, crooks and fraudulent people are being celebrated, appointed and nominated to occupy the exalted positions meant for men of impeccable character! The so-called honourables are, in fact, devoid of honour and integrity in their handling of affairs of fellow compatriots! The pious people are being castigated, ridiculed and called names that they do not deserve! The Mujaahiduuns are being molested, chained and imprisoned in most countries of the world all in the name of global war against terror!

What we notice is the fact that the leaders and the led are telling themselves what each of the two groups want to hear and not what they need to hear! Deceits, empty promises and exaggerated achievements (the so-called dividends of democracy) are the leaders are feeding the followers with while the followers pay them back with sycophancy, sabotage and double tongue! Our leaders are dealers in the trade of self-esteem and personal aggrandisement. They become elated when they are praised to heavens but they get stroppy when they are served with home truths they deserve to know about themselves! Generally speaking, people are shameless in the way they call others to act in their interests while Allaah’s injunctions and compliance with His dictates are being relegated to the background! Politicians and leaders in positions of authority are busy reminding us through campaigns, jingles and rallies that voting is our right and we should defend our votes on election day but fail to emphasise that wearing hijaabs and praying on time at schools and workplaces are our our rights and we should defend these natural and religious rights? Who is fooling who?!

Dear listeners! Fornication and adultery are gradually being accepted as realities of the modern time while the institution of marriage is being relegated to background as many people prepare to shun it! Women are being encouraged to abandon their traditional role of child rearing and home management in the name of women emancipation and sexual equality! (The international Beijing Conference of 1994 resolved that women worldwide should be giving 35% of public positions and various governments including our own are blindly complying with it not minding the social implications of abandoned children that will lack necessary home-training that all human beings need in other to be truly humane!) Indeed, in many countries, many states, many ministries, many agencies and many government parastatals of the world women are now piloting the affairs of men! I pity the present-day child who is either entrusted to the hands of ill-trained house-girls and nannies or forced on the day cares, nurseries and creches at the tender age of one or even younger as if he\she is motherless! The dictionary definition of the word “crèche” is amusing and annoying at the same time. According to A.S. Hornby’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, a crèche is “a place where babies and children are looked after while their parents are working, studying, shopping, etc.” For Allaah’s sake, is either working, studying or shopping much more important that looking after the special gifts of nature?!

Religiously speaking, any work, study or shopping that denies a child that is below two years of his\her mother’s company four hours does not worth the sacrifice. Allah has prescribed who and how to cater and shop for the nursing mother where He decreed thus: {233. The mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two whole years, if the father desires to complete the term, but he shall bear the cost of their food and clothing on equitable terms. No soul shall have a burden laid on it greater than it can bear. no mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child} (Suuratul-Baqarah, Chapter 2, Verse 233). In the light of this verse, we can see that any woman nursing a child that is younger than two years and still being saddled with the responsibility of earning or shopping that will be detrimental to her interest and overall wellbeing of the child is being unfairly treated and subjected to shoulder a burden she cannot conveniently bear by nature. You will all agree with me that a child that enjoyed constant and breast milk at his tender age is more likely to be healthy, mentally stable and humane than the one deprived of this critical need. Modern scientists and psychologists have attested to this fact.

Nowadays, just because of the inordinate ambition to acquire material wealth and the urge to purchase all what we want and not necessarily what we need, we have orphaned children whose parents are still alive! The apathy of duty on the part of these parents is manifested in the fact that they do not have time for their children. These children are the real orphan sif we have to stick to the great Shaowqi’s definition of an orphan when he stated thus:

ليس اليتيم من انتهى أبواه من     همّ الحياة وخلّفاه ذليلا

إنّ اليتيم من حظّه أن رزق الحيا   أمّا تخلّت أو أبا مشغولا

Gradually and one-by-one, muslims’ countries are being occupied by foreign forces and their common wealth are being accessed by enemy governments!

Another worrisome manifestation of the degeneration of this generation is the fact that few rich people are getting richer while the overwhelming majority are groaning under poverty and some are either passing their nights either in uncompleted\dilapidating buildings, bridges or even living under scorning sun with no shelter and abode at all! Surely, the Signs of Yaomul-Qiyaamah and Amaaraatus-Saa’ are manifest for everybody to see and feel! Are we really progressing or retrogressing?!

Today, in our dear society, we see religious leaders who promote hatred and utter incendiary statements because of vain political expediency as we find teachers who connive with students and parents to cheat. In our micro-society, there are reports of lecturers who either extort money from students of sexually harass them or are guilty of both. We have lawyers who break the law and we know how criminally-minded people in high places decide to study law for the purpose of knowing how to how to break it with ease. We find journalists who misinform the public and media houses publishing rumours with some of them losing credibility and reputation in the process.

More specifically with our immediate environment, we remember at this juncture that our dear 400 Level students are completing their academic sojourn in this citadel of knowledge by next week Friday Inshaa Allah. After today, I may never have any opportunity of standing in front of them as a tutor or preach to them as the Imaam. It is based on this reality that I want to urge them to be good ambassadors of their parents and this university. You should know that it is not the degree or the class of degree that you bag that matters but what you do with it. Our beloved children, you should know that education acquisition is a means and not an end in itself. What is the essence of knowledge without piety and morality? The ultimate aim of any knowledge acquired by man should be the fear of Allaah that will translate to better dealings with human beings. Allaah the Omnipotent and the Omniscient stated this unequivocally thus : {28. It is only those who have real knowledge among His Allaah’s slaves that fear Him. Verily, Allâh is All­Mighty, Oft­Forgiving} (Suuratul-Faatir Chapter 35, Verse 28).

Brothers and sisters, it is noteworthy to meditate over a statement credited to the late American philosopher comedian, George Carlin, who lamented the contradiction while x-raying the paradox of modern live thus: “We have taller buildings but shorter tempers, wider freeways, but narrower viewpoints. We spend more, but have less, we buy more, but enjoy less. We have bigger houses but smaller families, more conveniences, but less time. We have more degrees but less sense, more knowledge but less judgement, more experts but more problems, more medicine, but less wellness.

“We have cleaned up the air but polluted the soul. We’ve conquered the atom, but not our prejudice. We write more, but learn less. We plan more, but accomplish less. We have learned to rush, but not to wait. We build more computers to hold more information, to produce more copies than ever but we communicate less and less. These are times of fast foods and slow digestion, big men and small character, steep profits and shallow relationships. These are the days for two incomes and more divorce, fancier houses but broken homes….”

The purpose of education is self-development, character reformation and the attainment of a total man. The purpose of education is not just seeking employment. If one is employed by an organisation or government, it is good. However, it is wrong to assume that the only reward of education is material. Being educated and being rich are not always the same as being rich does not necessarily translate to being happy.

It is therefore desirable for our about-to-graduate students to think of what they can do with their education in terms of wealth creation, selfless service to others and spiritual rejuvenation. While the National Educational Curriculum caters for the first and second needs through the introduction GNS courses like Entreprenueral Studies and Skills Acquisition (GNS 202\204) and Citizenship and Conflict Resolution (GNS 206), the proprietors and designers of this university cater for the vital spiritual rejuvenation and Islamic integration by making Islamic Ethics and Culture (GNS 203), Beginners’ Arabic (GNS 105) and Arabic Conversation (GNS 204) for all students of this unique university. In other words, you have been given a balanced education that should enable you to swim in you in the murky waters of life. Perhaps, your earliest exposure to the wider world will be your service year where the corruption, nudity and favouritism that are orders of the day will stare you in the face. Please, do not join the bandwagon. Always remember the products of which university you are. Once again, try to be good ambassadors of this university and, more importantly, good representatives of Islaam, the religion that preaches peace, enjoins goodness and decrees decency.

Believing men and women, as the holiest month of Ramadhaan is fast approaching and knocking our doors, it high time for us all to repent, prepare to engage in good deeds fervently pray so that our world will be a better place to be and our Hereafter is blessed with Jannatul-Firdaos.

However, in accomplishing these tripod tasks of repentance, goog deeds and prayers, we should beware putting all our efforts in a Hollow Pocket!

What is a Hollow Pocket?

A Hollow Pocket leaks away the good deeds that are not well done.

A Hollow Pocket may manifest in various forms of good deeds are not rewarding because of some undesirable things attached to them. Take a look at these deeds and actions:

*Somebody performs ablution in the perfect manner but he\she wastes water in the process (A manifestation of a Hollow Pocket).

*Somebody gives charity to the needy people but he\she humiliates or causes inconvenience to them in them in the process (A manifestation of a Hollow Pocket).

*Somebody regularly observes superogatory prayers in the night (tahajjud), engages in non-obligatory in the day (Saowt-Tatawwu’) and obeys the Lord but he\she is irresponsible in his dealings with the relatives, (A manifestation of a Hollow Pocket).

*Somebody bears the self-denial of hunger and thirst in Ramadhaan but cannot restrain himself\herself from bullying, cursing and abusing others while fasting (A manifestation of a Hollow Pocket).

*A woman wears long garment hijaab that islamically ordained but either prefers the tight and shape-reflecting one or still uses perfumes while outside her home in other to tantalise men (A manifestation of a Hollow Pocket).

*Somebody cheerfully welcomes his\her guests and entertains them well but resorts to backbiting or condemning them whenever they leave and depart for their homes (A manifestation of a Hollow Pocket).

Please, for Allah’s sake, avoid putting your good deeds in A Hollow Pocket! Good deeds that you labour to do on one hand but that will be easily wasted by not earning their rewards on the other hand.

My dear listeners, we are in an era of many paradoxes in the lives in the lives of contemporary muslims. Here are some glaring examples:

*Somebody claims that he\she is unable to perform hajj because of huge financial requirements but he\she can afford to spend hundreds of thousands of naira or even millions on tourist travellings, “owanbe” or “aaremise” parties, lavish baseless ceremonies like “house warming”, political rallies and celebration of chieftancy titles. Don’t we realize that attainment of Allah’s pleasure and enjoyment of His stupendous treasure cannot come cheaply!

*Somebody cannot afford to buy “Ileya” ram because of its high price in recent times but he\she has enough money to purchase ipad phones, blackberries, laptops, et cetera in order not to be left in new vogue. Don’t we realize that attainment of Allah’s pleasure and enjoyment of His stupendous treasure cannot come cheaply!

*Somebody is so busy and committed to his\her job to the extent that there is no time to recite even just ten verses of the Glorious Qur’an in a day but he\she “manages” to get time to make dozens and scores of phone calls, hundreds of telephone chats and spends hours watching different television channels on either DSTV or STARTIMES devices every day. Most muslims are fans of either Manchester United, Chelsea, Barcelona, Real Madrid, Arsenal and the likes at the expense of religious knowledge and time management. In fact, it is claimed by some observers that ordinary football unites nowadays and religion divides! Should that be the case when Almighty Allaah has posited that Islaam is the grand unifier thus: {103. and hold fast, All of You together, to the Rope of Allâh (i.e. This Qur’ân), and be not divided among yourselves, and Remember Allâh’s Favour on you, for You were enemies one to another but He joined Your hearts together, so that, by his Grace, You became brethren (in Islâmic Faith), and You were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved You from it. Thus Allâh makes his Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.,) clear to you, that You may be guided} (Suuratu Aal ‘Imraan, Chapter 3, Verse 103). Don’t we realize that attainment of Allah’s pleasure and enjoyment of His stupendous treasure cannot come cheaply!

Lastly, I want all you to remember that you are muslims and your bodies and souls should be devoted to Islaam in the forthcoming special month of Ramadhaan. Do not allow yourselves to be distracted by which country qualifies for either quarter finals, semi finals or even final match of the on-going world cup tournament. Leave Messi, Ronaldo, Drogba, Odewinge, Onyeama et cetera and devote time for your Lord in these approaching weeks of blessing, forgiveness and salvation form hellfire. Once again, leave FIFA and deal with Allaah the Giver. If you have to be with FIFA at all, let your FIFA means: Fasting Is For Allaah and not: Federation of International Association!

O Lord! I pray that You guide and forgive me and my beloved ones who are the muslims worldwide so that we will stick to righteousness that leads to blissful life in this world and the Hereafter.