ARABIC LANGUAGE AND ISLAMIC EDUCATION AS AGENTS OF NATIONAL COHESION AND DEVELOPMENT

Dr. Abdul-Hafeez Adeniyi Ahmad Adedimeji,

 University Grand Imaam & Coordinator of Department of General Studies,

 Fountain University,

Osogbo.

 

E-mail: abdulhafeezadedimeji@gmail.com,abdulhafeezmeji@yahoo.com

 

Tel: +2348059310129& +2348121521380

 

Abstract

 

The fact that education, in its true sense, emancipates and liberates its possessor amounts to stating the obvious. In the same vein, it is an incontrovertible fact that education can take many forms and serve many needs. While it is widely acknowledged that one of the greatest threats facing humanity is the problem of insecurity that is not only slowing down the much-anticipated development but poses danger to human existence, the vital role that Arabic language and Islamic Education which calls for unity, preaches peace and exemplifies harmonious relationship between all races and nations cannot be over-emphasised. The main objective of this paper is to examine the positive roles that Muslims, the torch-bearers of Arabic language and Islamic evangelism, have played in human development. It also seeks to  x-ray. Generally, expository  methodology was used in the course of this study while historical approach was resorted to where necessary. The study discovered that Arabic has played important role in the preservation of Nigerian history and arrives at the fact that muslims have been actively partaking in human development since the advent of Islam up till the contemporary time . Based on the above, the paper recommends  that proper recognition of Arabic be accorded to Arabic as a vital language and advocates that its importance does not lie in being the liturgical  language of the Muslims alone. In short, this study serves as an eye-opener to what Nigerians as a people in particular,  and humanity in general,  stand to gain in terms of peace and development if Arabic language and Islamic Education are given due consideration and proper patronage.

 

Keywords: Arabic language, Islamic Education, Development Agents, Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Language is the medium of communication between human beings. It is a social activity that human cannot be complete without. Every human being, by nature, has a language which he/she is affiliated with. Each community or group of people that speaks the same language is referred to as language group. Altogether, there are more than one thousand language groups worldwide.(Adedimeji, A. A. A. 2012:121).

It is the most noticeable distinguishing factor between human beings and other living creatures of the animal kingdom and the most highly developed form of communication man is endowed with. Its essence, significance and status as a social activity is evident in the lens of Augusta Phil Omamar (2003) when he attempted defining it thus:

“Language, whatever else it may or may not be, is the most important,most often used and most highly developed form of human communicationIt is, in a sense, what sets humans apart from other animals which also happen to communicate in the sense of transmitting information of one kind or the otherfrom a sender/source to a receiver. The big difference in the case of human is notjust that both sender and receiver are human as would naturally be expected, but also that the message is either sent vocally through the air and the vocal organs, orgraphically by making particular kind of marks on paper.

There are languages whose speakers cannot exceed thousands of people while there are others whose speakers can be counted in millions or, in rare cases, in tens or hundreds of millions.(Adedimeji, A. A. A. 2012:121). While discussing the numerical strength of various languages, Al-Kiyaali (1990) positioned that there are twelve languages whose speakers exceed fifty millions per each of them. These are: English, German, Russian, Japanese, Arabic, Bengali, Claytonia, Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, Urdu and French.

From the above-mentioned position, it is crystally clear that Arabic is one of the most widely-spoken languages in the world. Apart from this, the language is “of over-whelming importance as the language of the revelation of Islam and of the Qur’an, which muslims regard as the epitome of literary excellence”.(Encyclopedia Britannica, 6: 411).

Although, in the light of the afore-stated reality, it is right to refer to Arabic as the liturgical language of Islam, it does not derive its significance from the divine religion alone. Rather, it is an international language which enjoys a very wide acceptance. It has also contributed in no small measure to human civilization. The wide acceptance, universality and vintage status of Arabic vis-à-vis other international languages is chronicled by Oladosu (2012), relying heavily on a research published by the duo of Chejneand B. Whitaker in 1969 and 2009 respectively, in these glittering words:

 

“Arabic is a universally recognized language, occupying a position which is not less in status and rank than that occupied by other international languages like English, French or German. It has long been adopted by the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), as a tool for political and diplomatic exchange. Arabic has native speakers in Africa and Asia, emigrants in North and South America and many non-native speakers scattered around the world. In Africa, it is the native tongue of countries like Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, the Western Sahara and the Sudan. In Asia, it is the medium of expression for countries like Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen and Palestine. By 1969, it was estimated that, altogether, Arabic was being used as liturgical language by more than four hundred million (400,000,000) people. Currently, Arabic ranks sixth in the world’s league table of languages. It is spoken as a mother tongue by an estimated 186 native speakers. The five languages ahead of Arabic are Chinese, Hindi, Spanish, English and Bengali. (Oladosu A.G.A.S. 2012: 10-11).

 

Arabic being a liturgical language of Islam

Islam is a globally-accepted celestial religion that has its adherents in the nooks and crannies of the world. It was revealed to Prophet Muhammad Bin Abdullah (Peace Be Upon Him), a Qurashite Arab man. Its holy book is the glorious Qur’an and its official language is Arabic. Thus, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary aptly defines it as “the Muslim religion, based on the belief in one God and revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah”(Hornby, A.S. 2000: 780).

Although Islam, alongside Christianity and Judaism , is one of the three greatest faiths in the world, its uniqueness emanates from the fact that it does not only connotes a religion but encapsulates the ideal way of life for all its adherents. This is the reason why “the most important and fundamental religious concept of Islam is that of the Sharicah, or the Law, which embraces the total way of life as explicitly and implicitly commanded by God.”(Encyclopedia Britannica, 5: 409)

For example, Islamic Sharicah covers a large range of all human endeavours such as business, education, science, social interactions like marriage, ceremonies, divorce, diet, wearing, mating, planting, agriculture, hunting, courtship, lending, and leisure activities in addition to acts of worship like mandatory prayers, alms-giving, fasting, supplicating, holy pilgrimage and missionary works in such a comprehensive and elaborate way that no religion can lay claims to such. No wonder, the most Exalted Allah stated inter alia in the Glorious Qur’an: {And there is no creature on/within the earth or bird that flies with its wings except that they are communities like you. We have not omitted anything in the Book (Qur’an). Then, unto their Lord they will be gathered}.(Qur’an: 6:38).

The Hadith (which is the sayings, actions and reactions of Prophet Muhammad in every situation as aptly related and accurately recorded by those who actually witnessed or heard them) is also available to shed more light on whatever is summarized in the Glorious Qur’an. This is in fulfillment of Allah’s commandment to his Prophet (Muhammad) –P.B.U.H- which is unequivocally stated thus: { And We revealed to you the message (i.e. the Qur’an) so that you will explain to the people what was sent down to them and that they may give thought (to it}.( Qur’an: 16:44).

Along with the large collections of Hadith, the biography of the Prophet Muhammad- popularly known as “Seerah” in Islamic circles-is well –known as part of recorded history and source of legislation in Islam. The Prophet’s biographers were historians who, within the first century after his death, began to gather all the facts they could from various sources available, most of them oral. These included descriptions of battles and other events, descriptions of the Prophet’s character, descriptions of people with whom he came in contact with and various other biographical information.

Added to the above-mentioned sources of inspiration, guidance and legislation is the explanations of the Qur’an and the expatiation on the Hadith by the renowned scholars of repute. The authoritative books bequeathed to the Muslim Ummah (global society) by these eminent scholars also complement other sources of Islamic adjudication and enrich in such a way that there is hardly any issue in human society that a historical precedent and religious pronouncement will not be readily available for a Muslim to measure against.

Its noteworthy that Islam is not distinct in the availability of these sources of legislation but in the fact that it is the only religion where these sources are distinctly in existence. The Holy Book of Islam which Allah’s words-known as Qur’an- is independently available and permanently protected in a way that gives no room for revisions, editions and/or variations.

In the same vein, the books of the Hadiths and its categorizations are also independently available. Likewise, there are books which focus on the Prophet’s biography while there are others which centre on ideas, views and explanations of scholars of proven integrity. This is in contrast with books of other religions where the history of people, biographies of Prophets and views of their associates, disciples and/or historians are lumped together and regarded as holy and divine!

On the universality of Islam and the spread of its adherents, muslim population constituted 12% of the world population, coming second after Christianity which had 27%, in the advent of the twentieth century. (Adedimeji M.A. 2012: 2\159). Despite the existential challenges that it has faced, especially since the World War I till the aftermath events of September 11, 2011, which make its adherents to face various forms of decapitation, annihilation,relegation,humiliation and intimidation,  M.A. Adedimeji (2012), relying on October 9th, 2009 edition of, noted that Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world.

 

It is the second largest religion in USA (3.7% Muslim), United Kingdom (4% Muslim), Canada (2% Muslim), France (7% Muslim) and Germany (3.5%). Contrary to the impression held by many, the Arabs constitute a minority in the world population of Muslims, constituting just 18% while non-Arabs are 82%. Africans constitute 20% of the world Muslim population and “there are altogether 241 million Muslims in Sub-Saharan Africa, making up about 15% of the world’s Muslim population”, according to the October 2009 report of the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.(Adedimeji M.A. 2012: 2\159).

Coming to Nigeria, the most widely-read national newspaper has asserted that there are 78 million muslims in Nigeria, constituting 50% percent of the national population and 5% of the global muslim population; the remaining 50% of Nigerians are distributed between Christians and traditional religionists.( The Punch, 9th October, 2009: 53).

 

The link between Arabic language and Islamic education as tools for National Cohesion, Stability and Development

Although Arabic is the native language of the Arabs while Islam is the global religion revealed for the mankind through Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), as earlier asserted, the facts that the Qur’an was revealed in Arabic, muslims mostly worship their Creator using the Arabic medium and the reality that most non-Arab muslims learn Arabic for the sake of understanding Islam make both Arabic language and Islamic education to interweave to the extent of fusion. According to Abubakre (2002), “the dynasties of Ummayad and Abbasid Empires contributed immensely to the rise of Arabic as the official language of the Islamic religion, business and administration. This way, Arabic was able to gain linguistic pre-eminence over the territories of converts”.(Abubakre R. D. 2002: 25).  From this, we can see that the two disciplines are inter-related, hence the need to treat both as a set of twins.

Arabic education can serve as a veritable tool for the attainment of lasting peace and national development in Nigeria if it is viewed from the fact that it is the oldest language of civilization in the entire West African sub-region. “Before a single West African son knew a word in English or French, some of his people must have learnt Arabic and in many cases started to write various African Languages in Arabic characters, just as English and French are written in Roman characters” (Abubakre R. D. 2004: 5).

In fact, Oloyede (2012) has chronicled that “ no one can deny the intellectual and administrative roles of Islamic scholarship in pre-independence and administrative Northern and South-Western Nigeria as Arabic Language was a saving grace for Africa’s original contribution to knowledge”(Oloyede I. O. 2012: 29).

To buttress the noble role that Arabic language has played in the history of modern-day Nigeria and the fact that it has served as a carrier of civilization and torch – bearer of progress in the nation’s immediate and remote past history, a vivid testimony of an unbiased Christian historian, Dike (1965) is relevant here:

 

As an historian myself, I have taken the keenest in this development, for it is through the aid of these Arabic documents and those written in African languages in the Arabic script that the scholar will be aided in his task of unlocking the secrets of the African past. It has been a revelation to the whole world of scholarship to realize for the first time that Africa before the European penetration, so far from being a dark continent where the light of scholarship shone brightly, as the Arabic works now being discovered bear testimony… The Arabic scholars of the present, drawing upon the writings of the Arabic scholars of the past, will be able to bring before us the events and happenings of the past ages of Nigeria and so help us to write a history we may rightly call our own.(Dike K. O. 1965: 31-32).

 

The fact that Arabic has served as a means of historical preservation and an agent of development to Nigerians in particular and Africans in general, as evident from the quotation above, cannot be over-emphasised. What is pertinent to be buttressed here is that the glorious past of Arabic education can be rekindled if official recognition is accorded to this benevolent language by our governments in the various levels. It is high time for our fair-minded scholars to begin to see reason  why it deserves to be recognized as our national language so that the country will not only continue to unlock its past through it but mutual and harmonious co-existence between its various nationalities will be achieved on one side and Nigeria will attain accelerated development through bilateral and regional co-operation with the relatively rich developed Arab and Islamic countries on the other side.

Closely related to Arabic language education is the Islamic education. Education, which has been defined as “the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society”(Encyclopedia Britannica, 14\18) knows no barriers of languages and cultures. More than any civilization, Islam has contributed to the advancement of knowledge which is the driving force of development.

 

The translation into Latin of most Islamic works during the 12th and 13th centuries had a great impact upon the European Renaissance…… By 1300, when all that was worthwhile in Muslim scientific, philosophical and social learning had been transmitted to European schoolmen through Latin translations, European Scholars stood once again on the solid ground of Hellenistic thought, enriched or modified through Muslim and Byzantine effort.(Encyclopedia Britannica, 14\17).

 

The perspicacious assessment of role of Islam quoted above explains the position and goal of Islamic education. In Islam, education is about learning and trying to know the unknown. It is about the liberation of the mind and the development of the intellect. It is about trying to develop the intellect, mind, aspiration and assessment of the world and trying to use it to improve every individual’s personality, his environment and the entire community. In short, education is an essential part of Islam and the foundation on which is built. This explains why the word ever revealed by God to his Prophet, Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), in the Glorious Quran is “Read”. It is noteworthy that the word “Read” is broader than another closely word which is “Recite”. While the former deals with all aspects of knowledge, the latter focuses on religious verses alone. In fact, Allah delved on reproduction and embryonic developments of foetus which are scientific issues in the first verses. He communicated to His most beloved Prophet (P.B.U.H.) thus:

(Read in the name of your Lord Who created*He created man from a clinging substance (i.e. sperm) *Read, and your Lord is the most Generous*(it is He) Who taught through the pen* He taught man which he knew not*).(Qur’an: 96: 1-5).

In the light of the above, we can see that Islamic education covers all aspects of knowledge and it is not limited, contrary to the popular belief, to spiritual or religious education alone. This is why a popular versatile writer, Asad (1934), observed that:

Islam has never been a barrier to progress and science. It appreciates the intellectual activities of man to such a degree as to place him above the angels.21 No other religion went so far in asserting the predominance of reason and, consequently, of learning, above all other manifestations of life. If we conform ourselves  to the principles of this religion we cannot wish to eliminate modern learning out of our life. We wish to learn and to progress and to become scientifically and economically as efficient as the western nations are. (Asad M. 1934, 80).

While Islam enjoins its adherents to acquire and embrace all useful forms of knowledge, it is noteworthy that religious education occupies a vintage position in what a Muslim should familiarize himself/herself about. Islamically – speaking, the spiritual education is the bedrock of every knowledge. So, in Islam, to be truly religious, one has to possess some basic religious knowledge which will not be only useful to him/her in worshipping his/her Creator but also serves a guide to man in harmonious relationship with other creatures (man and other animals), an agent of positive change and  a torch to lighten the way for others who have went astray. So, the totality of knowledge and education postulates that without knowledge about God, about life, about creation, about the requirements of worship and about the fulfillment of man’s mission, one cannot worship God and, consequently, one cannot live happily and successfully within himself/herself and with his/her other country-men. Therefore, a devout Muslim is expected to regularly read the Glorious Qur’an so that he/she will know Allah’s injunctions of how to live the best way and relate with others.

For example, on the acquisition of knowledge and its essence, Almighty Allah buttressed that knowledge is life and the fact that an ignorant man is not living life to its fullest was stated in various forms and different verses of His Book. In verse 9 of chapter 39 (Suratuaz-Zumar) of the Qur’an, He asks rhetorically thus:{Are those who know equal to those who do not know?!’’ It is only men of understanding remember (and derive lessons from Allah’s signs}. In verse 28 of Chapter 35 (Suratu Faatir) however, he equates knowledge with piety thus: {It is only those who have knowledge among his slaves that fear Allah}. Likewise, He promised that He will exalt the pious and the knowledgeable people in degrees when he said in verse 11 of Chapter 58 (Suuratul – Mujaadilah) thus: {Allah will exalt in degree those of you who believe, and those who have been granted knowledge}.

On peaceful co-existence and orderliness of the society, these are some Islamic teachings that promote tolerance, understanding and loyalty to the constituted authority. {Do not let the hatred of people who (once) stopped you from (entering) Al-Masjid Al-Haram) (at Makkah ) lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part). Cooperate in righteous and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression}. (Chapter 5, verse 2) {Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and to judge with justice when you judge between people. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Truly, Allah is ever All-Hearer, All-seer. O you who believe! Obey Allah and Obey the Messenger (Muhammad, Peace Be Upon Him) and those in authority among you}. (Qur’an 4, 58-59).

Apart from the lessons and facts derivable from the afore-mentioned verses of the Glorious Qur’an, Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), led an exemplary life of honesty, righteousness, tolerance and peace that is yet unrivalled in history. Suffice at this juncture is the leadership qualities he bequeathed to the entire mankind when he was saddled with the onerous responsibility of managing the affairs of the entire Ummah at its inception and heading the multi-religious Madeenah community after his and his followers’ emigration to the holy city. In fact, it is not an overstatement when one states that Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) has, through his actions, deeds and utterances, demonstrated statesmanship more than any mortal in the history of humanity. The ground-breaking Sulhul-Hudaibeyyah (i.e. the Peace Treaty of Al-Haudaibeyyah)23 serves as a glittering example of the high sense of diplomacy, sagacity and statemanship of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). in the talks that were held between SuhailIbn Amir, who was delegated by the infidel Quraish people to act as their mouthpiece, and the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), the two opposing camps agreed as follows:

 

  1. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) should return back that year and he should not be given access to Makkah. Whenever the Muslims come in the following year, they would be allowed to enter Makkah with the arms of riders only (i.e. their swords should be sheathed).
  2. Wars between the two parties should be suspended for ten years when people enjoy security and abstain from all acts of fighting against one another.
  3. He who wants to go into agreement with Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) can do so. Similarly, he who wants to make a treaty with Quraish can do so. The tribe that joins either of the two parties is regarded as part of it. So, any act of aggression made against any tribe can be deemed as an attack on the relevant party.
  4. He who defects to Muhammad (P.B.U.H.), among the Quraish people, without his guardian’s permission (i.e. as fugitives), should be sent back. Contrarily, he who seeks asylum to Quraish from among the followers of Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) should not be returned to him.(Al-Mubarakfuriy S. 1999, 347-348).

One who is not familiar with the absolute tolerance of the Prophet (S.A.W.S.) and his large-heartedness may perceive him as a weakling by his consent to the terms of agreement mentioned above, especially on article (4) of the treaty. However, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was merely being concessional; diplomatic and peace-seeking. On the contrary, he was a strong, determined and courageous leader with a followership that can best be described as iron-willed. As a tolerant and law abiding leader, he started implementing the terms of the treaty with immediate effect as it was recorded that he sent Abu Jandal son of SuhailIbn Amir down to Makkah and released him to his father, the chief negotiator of the Quraish, when the former surfaced just after the signing of the agreement and declared his profession of Islam. When the worthless polytheists of Quraish were recalcitrant to honour their words, persistent in their infidelity and persecution of the Muslims, he did not hesitate to wage war on them some few years later and he and his followers emerged victorious as evident from the landmark Fathu (conquest) of Makkah.(Al-Mubarakfuriy S. 1999, 348-349).

In the modern day however, Muslims and Islamic nations have proved themselves as forces to be reckoned with in the areas of granting reliefs to the needy individuals and countries, extension of hands of fellowship to nations of different ideologies and active participation in economic development of member states. For example, the pro-active stand of Muslim nations is evident in the establishment of a multi-national economic institutions that benefit its members.

 

ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT BANK (AL-BANK AL-ISLAMI LIL-ISTITHMAR), Muslim Bank directed toward financing the economic and social development of members in accordance with the principles of the Shari’ah (Islamic sacred laws). Conceived by the Organization of Islamic Conference in 1973, the bank was headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and formally opened on October 1975. Its member states are drawn from the ranks of those states belonging to the organization of the Islamic conference. The Islamic Development Bank seeks to spur economic and financial growth by participating in equity capital, by investing   in economic and infrastructure projects, and making loans to the public and private sectors”. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 6\441).

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

In the light of the above discussion, this research has been able to establish the followings:

i-  Arabic language has played the pivotal role in the development of the humanity in general and preservation of Nigerian history and political development in particular.

ii- Arabic is a global language that is widely accepted throughout the length and breadth of the universe. Its importance, therefore, transcends the narrow limits of being a mere liturgical language to a global medium of transaction useful for economic and political relationships between nations, communities and individuals.

iii- Islam recognizes the essence  and vital role in language as a unifying factor between races and different peoples of the world. Hence,its adoption of Arabic as its official language used in most of different forms of worship.

iv- Islam enjoins its adherents to acquire and embrace all useful forms of knowledge. Therefore, education in Islam should not be restricted, or understood to be restricted, to religious education alone.

v- Closely related to the above, Islam has never been a barrier to progress and science. It appreciates the intellectual activities of man to such a degree as to make the first verses ever revealed in its glorious Book to focus on essence of both religious and scientific education. An ideal Islamic scholar is, therefore, expected to be vast in religious and the so-called Western education.

vi- Since Islam derives its name from absolute and unconditional submission to the creator and peaceful co-existence with fellow creatures, it should be understood that acquisition of Islamic education will undoubtedly aid the much-sought national cohesion, accelerate growth and aid in the attainment of development. In other words, violence, coercion, compulsion and terror are totally alien to Islam, while conviction and tolerance are its attributes. Therefore, undesirable actions of some of its adherents should not be attributed to the sacred religion as there is no religion that does not has some misled and/or disgruntled elements within its fold.

vii- What is widely regarded as Islamic Studies in our formal education nowadays is, in actual fact, a conflux of disciplines that covers areas of specialization that include: Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence), Tafseer (Qur’anic exegesis), Seerah (Prophetic history), Hadeeth ( Prophetic action and sayings), cAgeedah (the Creed) and, of course, the knowledge of Qur’anic recitation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

  • Abubakre R.D. (2002), The Survival of Arabic in Difficult Terrains,Fifty fifth Inaugural Lecture, Ilorin: University of Ilorin Library and Publication Committee.
  • Abubakre, R.D. (2004) The Interplay of Arabic and Yoruba Cultures in South-Western Nigeria,Iwo: Darul-cIlm Publishers.
  • Adedimeji A.A.A. (2012), “The Prospects of Arabic Language as a Unifying Force for Nigerian Muslims” In Musa A. Abdul-Raheem Ph. D. (Ed.), Challenges of Moon Sighting and Preservation of Arabic Manuscriptsin Nigeria, theme of an annual Journal of Nigeria Association of Teachers of Arabic and Islamic Studies (NATAIS), (Sebiotimo Publications, Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria), p. 121.
  • Adedimeji M.A., Islamic Education in Nigeria and Al-Ilori: The Language Question and the Challenges Ahead” In R.D. Abubakre Ph. D., (Ed.), Shaykh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilory in the Tableau of Immortality, (Riyadh: Nigerian Centre for Arabic Research, 2012,) 2/159.
  • Al-Kiyaali A. (1990)et al, Maosuuatus-Siyaasah, Al-Muassasatul-cArabiyyah Lid-Diraasat Wan-Nashr, Beirut (Lebanon), vol. 5, p. 473.
  • Al-Mubarakfuriy S. (no date), Al-Rahiqul-Makhtoum, translated to English with the title: The Pure Nectar: A Treatise on Prophet’s Biography, by Muhammad Ibrahim Ghazy, Daramgd Publishers, Cairo, Egypt), pp. 347 – 348.
  • Asad M. (2001), Islam at the Crossroads, (New Delhi, (India): Goodword Books, 2001), p. 80.
  • Dike K.O. (1965), Report on a Seminar on the Teaching of Arabic in Nigeria, Ibadan and Kano, pp. 31-32 (as quoted by Abubakre, R.D. (2004) The Interplay of Arabic and Yoruba Cultures in South-Western Nigeria,Iwo: Darul-‘Ilm Publishers).
  • Encyclopedia Britannica (2007), Chicago: William Benton Publishers.
  • Hornby, A.S., Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, the word “Islam“.
  • Oladosu A.G.A.S. (2012), Fluctuations in the Fortunes of Arabic Education in Nigeria, One Hundred and Fifteenth Inaugural Lecture, (Ilorin: University of Ilorin Library and Publication Committee.
  • Oloyede I.O. (2012), Islamics: The Conflux of Disciplines, The One Hundred and Sixteenth Inaugural Lecture, Ilorin: University of Ilorin Library and Publication Committee.
  • Omamar A.P. (2003), “Of Linguistics, Knowledge and Service to the Nation”, Noel B. Saliu Ph.D. (Ed.), Nigerian Universities’ Inaugural Lectures Series, National Universities Commission, p.27.
  • The Punch, “Five percent of world’s Muslims in Nigeria”, Lagos: October 9, 2009, p.53.

 

 

 

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